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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (26)
Log 100
x=2
= 2
= log (10^2)
log graph
Log (2)
Log (3)
Log (5)
Log (8)
Log (2)= 0.3
Log (3)= 0.48
Log (5)= 0.70
Log (8)= 0.90
-Log (2)
-Log (3)
-Log (5)
-Log (8)
-Log (2)= -0.3
-Log (3)= -0.48
-Log (5)= -0.70
-Log (8)= -0.90
log(0.33)
log(1.5)
log(5)
log(0.33) = log(1/3) = log(1) - log(3) = 0 - 0.48 = -0.48
log(1.5) = log(3/2) = log(3) - log(2) = 0.48 - 0.3 = 0.18
log(5) = log(10/2) = log(10) - log(2) = 1 - 0.3 = 0.7
log of less than 1 will always be negative & for multiples of 10 it's just the # of decimal places:
log(0.1) = -1
log(0.01) = -2
log(0.001) = -3
Divide by 9
x/9 = 0.xxxx
1/9 = 0.1111...
2/9 = 0.2222...
3/9 = 0.3333...
Divide by 11
x/11 = 0.(x-1)9(x-1)9(x-1)9
1/11 = 0.090909...
2/11 = 0.181818...
3/11 = 0.27272...
Division with decimals
when a decimal is in the denominator:
convert it to a fraction then flip it and X
1/0.5 = 1/(1/2) = 1·(2/1) = 2
3/0.25 = 3/(1/4) = 3·(4/1) = 12
4 / (4/3) = 4·(3/4) = 12/4 = 3
15% of 150
add 10% and half of 10% together
15% of 150 = (10% of 150) + (10% of 150 / 2)
= 15 + (15/2) = 15 + 7.5 = 22.5
√2
1.4 (2/14 Valentine's Day)
√3
1.7 (3/17 St. Patty's)
Scalar
without direction; ex: length, time, mass
Vector
with direction; displacement, acceleration, force
Components
the portion of the vector in a given direction
Sin? Cos? Tan?
SOH; CAH; TOA
Depurination
can release guanine (G) as well as adenine (A) from DNA
Deamination
major: converts cytosine (C) to uracil but can occur in other bases as well
in picture these bases are attached to sugar residues that alternate with phosphate residues to create the DNA backbone
Thymine dimers
-A type of bulky damage from exogenous sources
-the main outcome of UV radiation
Double-stranded breaks
-if not repaired, can lead to fragmentation of chromosomes
-lead to cell death or worse, oncogenic transformation
-caused by ionizing radiation, strong oxidizing agents, metabolites produced in the cell
Mismatch Repair (MMR)
-repairs replication errors
-proteins identify the strands to repair by looking for "nicks" leftover from the replication process
Base excision repair
repair just the damaged base (not nucleotide); easily distinguish the good strand from the bad
Nucleotide excision repair
...
Homologous recombination
Double-stranded repair; gives perfect repair, but relies on having a sister chromatid around; can only be completed in S phase. (does not happen most of the time)
Non-homologous end joining
Double-stranded repair; blunt ends formed by trimming back strand, forming sticky ends, and brings them back together; almost always a frameshift occurs
CRISPR- Cas9 protein
double-stranded break via two endonuclease
nucleotide
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