Black Women In America Final
Terms in this set (82)
Ida B. Wells Barnett
-Former teacher and Co owner and editor of The Memphis Free Speech
-Author who wrote three pamphlets: A Red Record, Southern Horrors and Mob Rule in New Orleans.
-She was a driving force in the exposure of lynching of Blacks in the south. This movement jumpstarted her "fame" as she did numerous research, traveled and spoke out, and authored many publications
-Founded Alpha Suffrage Club
-Urged boycotts of streetcars
pen name for Ida B. Wells when publishing writing in a public settings for "Free Speech and Headlight"
The Princess of the Press
"When Wells arrived in Memphis she was a small-town nineteen-year-old whose unfinished education qualified her only to teach in rural schools; in less than five years she transformed herself into city schoolteacher and published writer. Within ten, she became the best-known black woman journalist in America, earning the nickname "Iola, Princess of the Press."
A time period after the Civil War and the Abolishment of Slavery where blacks gained education to rise as millionaires and as thriving political leaders within and throughout the South, even rising to Congress. Additionally, as blacks gained education, black women specifically began to become advocates and community leaders against problems such as lynching, womanism, and rape.
Civil War (1861-1865)
Northern reasons — wanted to stop expansion of slave states to quell influence as North becomes a more industrial/merchant economy while South remained agricultural. Southern reasons — slavery was backbone of highly profitable agricultural business, South felt threatened that North was trying to stop expansion of this because then it might not have enough power to influence government.
Memphis "Free Speech" (Newspaper)
In 1889, when she finally bought her first property, it was not a house but a one-third interest in a newspaper, The Memphis Free Speech and Headlight. A local black newspaper, Free Speech was the property of two African American men, who signed Wells on as both part owner and full-time editor of their fledgling publication. Ida B. Wells's position at Free Speech marks the utter singularity of her career. When she bought an interest in and assumed editorship of the paper, she became the first woman owner and editor of a black newspaper in American history."
-Attended Seneca falls convention and co wrote The reasons why the Colored American is Not in the World's Columbian Exposition.
-Influential writer. one of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in maryland. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
-husband of Ida B. Wells
-1896 became Illinois first black state attorney
-active against anti lynching
T. Thomas Fortune
employed Wells at his newspaper in New York and gave her a new platform to expose lynching
The NY Age (Newspaper)
Wells was employed by Thomas Fortune at the New York Aged. Ida was offered a one-quarter interest in The New York Age in return for her Free Speech subscription list, Wells accepted. She also signed on at the Age as a salaried weekly contributor. With the help of T. Thomas Fortune and the Age's co-owner Jerome B. Peterson, Wells weathered the loss of her paper.
-National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
-Ida B. Wells was a founding member of the NAACP, but like every other National Org. She did not stay long as her viewpoints and radicalism often clashed with others.
-She never found a role in NAACP due to DuBois being in charge basically
National Association of Colored Women
Umbrella organization for Black club women in different states. Founders include: Harriet Tubman, Ida B Wells, Frances E. W. Harper, Margaret Murray Washington, and Mary Church Terrell. Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin called for such an organization to be founded. Ida was sidelined and not able to become President of an organization she aided in founding.
-"The battle for womanhood is the battle for race"
-Placed increased emphasis on "individual home life" and believed that torpor child care was the chosen kingdom of women
Motto of NACW: "Lift as we climb"
We're not going to stopping going up be nor are we leaving our people behind. Referred to the social pressure placed on successful Black people to lie in traditionally Black neighborhoods, to "give back," and to bring up/uplift people who may not be as successful.
Mary Church Terrell (pg. 232-231)
-Leader of the National League of Colored Women (rival of National Federation of African American Women that and a coalition of black women's clubs)
-Daughter of wealthy black businessman who funded Ida's escape from California 10 years earlier
-First president of NACW
-Relationship with Ida was never the same after she uninvited her from NACW meetings
Frances Barrier Williams
-Member of the black elite, and her husband is a partner at the same law firm at Ida's. She was behind the reason Ida was being outed of the NACW. She told Terrell that Chicago women would not participate in the NACW meeting if Ida was present
-Affiliated with Booker T. Washington's views which further drew them apart
-Led a large group of Chicago club women
Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells
Autobiography written by her but edited by her daughter Alfreda. This book outlined Ida's personal life along with her activism against lynching
Ida B. Wells daughter. She found and edited her mother's autobiography Crusade for Justice
Yellow Fever Epidemic (1878)
-Both of Ida B. Wells' parents and one of her siblings were killed in this deadlier than usual epidemic
-Caused her to become the primary care provider for her siblings because she did not want them to be separated. This essentially ended her childhood and she got a job as a rural teacher and eventually moved to Memphis with her aunt for help with her siblings.
In 1883, Ida B. Wells traveled by train from Memphis to Woodstock, Tennessee, where she was working as a teacher. The conductor asked Wells to move to a different car because of her race. When she refused, she was removed from the train and sued the railroad company in 1884. The court decided in her favor and ordered the railroad company to pay damages, which they did. But they also appealed the case to the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1885, which is documented here. Wells was represented by African American attorney Thomas Frank Cassels. The state Supreme Court decided in favor of the railroad company, reversing the earlier decision.
Thomas Moss, Calvin McDowell, Will Stewart
The three men owned the People's Grocery, a black owned establishment. A disagreement over a game of marbles outside the Peoples Grocery turned into a fight between the black owners and a white store owner across the street. Concerned from the attack and altercation that occurred between Barrett (the white grocery store rival), the three black men tried to hired black militia to guard their store but had to protect themselves. They were arrested and and put in jail. Black militia stood guard for a few days but were disarmed and sent away and the three men were taken by an angry white mob where they were brutually lynched and mutilated. Ida had a close relationship with men and this ultimately jumpstarted her antilynching campaign
"To Sell My Life as Dearly as possible if attacked
"Determine to sell my life as dearly as possible if attacked," Wells "bought a pistol the first thing after Tom Moss was lynched" and rarely traveled unarmed afterward.
Ida's views on "Emigration"/Migration
First she was against it because she wanted her people to not run away from the problems and to keep their numbers up in the South but after her life and other prominents blacks lives were put in danger, she favored it more for the safety of blacks
Victoria Earle Matthews
On October 5, 1892, Lyons and educator and activist Victoria Earle Matthews organized a testimonial dinner in New York's Lyric Hall for Ida B. Wells and her anti-lynching campaign. They continued to work on this issue, founding the Women's Loyal Union of New York and Brooklyn.
-In 1892 Maritcha she started a black women's community club in Brooklyn that was well known as "The Woman's Loyal Union".
-She involved herself in Ida B. Wells's anti-lynching campaign and founded the White Rose Mission, a home that offered refuge to migrants from the West Indies and the American South.
Ida B. Wells Testimonial Reception Committee
Committee put together by black women of New York to plan an event in Ida B. Wells' honor
Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin
-Organized 1st National Convention of Colored Women (1895).
-Founded The Women's Era - the 1st newspaper published by and for African American women
-Ally of Ida B. Wells
-Serious challenger for Mary Church Terrell's reelection of president of NACW
National Conference of Colored Women
The First National Conference of the Colored Women of America was a three-day conference in Boston organized by Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin, a civil rights leader and suffragist. In August 1895, representatives from 42 African-American women's clubs from 14 states convened at Berkeley Hall for the purpose of creating a national organization. Ida and others spoke here.
The Woman's Era Newspaper
The 1st newspaper published by and for African American women, Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin (1894-1897).
Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in all its phases
-Well's first anti-lynching pamphlet
-Accounts of the lynchings within this book grabbed the attention of Northerners who knew little about lynching or accepted the common explanation that black men deserved this fate. Generally southern states and white juries refused to indict any perpetrators for lynching, although they were frequently known and sometimes shown in the photographs being made more frequently of such events.
A Red Record
A second pamphlet written and distributed by Wells to expose the horrors of lynching. Had a farther reach than her pamphlet "Southern Horrors" but both tackled the same issues.
Mob Rule in New Orleans
3rd pamphlet Ida put out against lynching and highlighting the truths of what lynching was really about.
World's Columbian Eposition
Chicago's World Fair in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in the New World in 1492.
-Fannie Barrier Williams was on the board
-Ida came to Chicago in 1893 to protest the exclusion of African Americans from exhibits at the World's Columbian Exposition.
Pamphlet- "Reasons why the Colored America is not in The World's Columbian Exposition"
Pamphlet by Ida B. Wells, Frederick Douglass, and others
Booker T. Washington
Educator, advisor to the U.S. President and civil rights activist who put himself through school, became a teacher, and founded Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute
-Ida was not a fan of his philosophy and beliefs
The Atlanta Compromise Speech
Speech given by Booker T. Washington which appeased to the conformance of black people into a white society by seeking "practical" positions. Appealed to whites and given to a white crowd.
-"..I plead for industrial education and development for the Negro not because I want to cramp him, but because I want to free him." -booker t washington
-Washington drew on his experience at Hampton Institute for the curriculum at Tuskegee. He saw that most white Southerners objected to black education because they believed that educated blacks would not work as manual laborers. So his system of hard work, discipline, and self-help was a way to educate blacks without antagonizing whites.
-Ida strongly disagreed with this notion
Washington's Politics of Accommodationism
-In response to the age of Jim Crow, Washington offered the doctrine of accommodation, acquiescing in social and political inequality for blacks while training them for economic self-determination in the industrial arts.
-Essentially Washington was tying to "accommodate" white white person's wants, jeopardizing the education black people deserved. Such disputes surfaced especially in the famous debate between Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois over the aims of "industrial" as opposed to "classical" education among blacks.
-White women's suffragist who had great influence in the passage of the 18th and 19th amendments
-Often came into conflict with Ida B. Wells.
-President of Women's christen temperance movement
-In the early 1890s conflict arose between Ida B. Wells and the WCTU, particularly with Frances Willard. Wells accused the WCTU of ignoring the atrocities being committed against blacks by lynch mobs. Wells was also outraged by some of the statements made by Willard concerning racial tensions in the south, statements which appeared to excuse, if not condone, lynching. Willard in turn, accused Wells of being "overzealous" in her attacks, and of painting a distorted picture of U.S. racial tensions during her lectures in Great Britain. The conflict between the two women would last until Willard's death in 1898.
WCTU (Women's Christian Temperance Union
an organization which worked to promote temperance, purity, moral reform, and encouraged education and women's suffrage. In 1879, she was elected president of the National WCTU and in 1891 became the president of the World WCTU.
Susan B. Anthony
-Advocated for the rights of woman's suffrage but only for her own race; determined that Black women and men didn't need the right to vote unless it was beneficial to white women (which it was not). Got into it with Frederick Douglass
-Believed that when women got on the ballot, all would be fixed and better
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court case about Jim Crow railroad cars in Louisiana; the Court decided by 7 to 1 that legislation could not overcome racial attitudes, and that it was constitutional to have "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites.
William Monroe Trotter
-Attended the conference that led to the creation of the NAACP but didnt fully align with the organization
-Founder/owner of the Boston Guardian Newspaper
-Major critic of Booker T. Washington
The (Boston) Guardian Newspaper
Black newspaper founded by William Monroe Trotter and George Forbes
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Ran 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, first for women's rights (began the Women's Suffrage Movement). Ally/friend of Susan B. Anthony
This amendment is necessary because of laws denying African Americans the right to vote. The amendment prohibits the use of race in determining which citizens can vote. It simply kept states from denying someone the right to vote solely on the basis of race. The amendment simply restricted the actions of states and did not provide a positive guarantee to African Americans
National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Merge of the NWSA and AWSA
Cult of True Womanhood
4 cardinal virtues — 1. piety (religious devotion) 2. purity (virtue) 3. submission (deference to husband) 4. domesticity ("keeper of the hearth"). Unattainable for Black women because of racist stereotypes/beliefs (excluded based on purity, domesticity, submissiveness), though some did embrace these values. Dominant paradigm accepting only one gender norm — Black women deviated from this
Alpha Suffrage Club
First black women's suffrage club; Started by Ida B. Wells
-The amendment which prohibits states from denying the right to vote on the account of sex.
-Really only gave white women the right to vote.
A never-passed anti-lynching bill which would have said that accomplices to murder were also guilty and given the federal government power to intervene as necessary
1924 Election for President of NACW
Ida B. Wells was outed/robbed for the presidency of the organization she aided in founding because she was "too radical"
1913 Suffrage Parade (Washington DC)
The Women's Suffrage Parade, organized by activist Alice Paul in support of a constitutional amendment guaranteeing women the right to vote, took place one day before Woodrow Wilson became the 28th president of the United States.
-Ida B. Wells marched alongside two white supporters in the Illinois delegation.
Mary McLeod Bethune
Eeducator, organizer, and political activist" and organized groups to support black women and children. She believed that "education was the road to progress". She organized the first African American girls school in Daytona Beach, Florida. She led blacks to register to vote as well as founded and joined organizations and associations such as the Florida Fellowship of Colored Women, National Association of Colored Women, National Council of Negro Women and so many more. She focused on educating the black community especially women and helping them to rise above the oppression.
Well's Critique Of Lynching
Ida was a driving force in the exposure of lynching of Blacks in the south. Ida's worldview changed with the lynchings as she began to realize that lynching wasn't just about the raping of white women anymore after seeing what happened to her friends. She wrote an editorial after they were killed. Rape culture and lynching was discussed. Essentially, rape was described as the "new Negro crime. She began running antilynching editorials in Free Speech, one called, "Eight Negroes lynched since the last issue of 'Free Speech'." It was an open attack on whites and their morals, especially that of white women.
-"But the murders of Moss, McDowell, and Stewart would change her life, propelling her on an antilynching campaign that would cost her her newspaper, threaten her life, and sever her ties to Memphis forever. In time, it would also maker her the most famous black woman in America"
Myth of Black Rapists
-Myth of the black rapist provided a powerful justification for the rising tide of white violence against black men.
-Wells researched every lynching she read about during the summer of 1892. She found that 2/3 of the victims of lynching were never accused of rape. She also found that black men were lynched for having consensual relationships with white women. •
-Anti-Rape Activist and trained black activist
-Involved with her husband with justice for the Scottborough Boys (9 boys accused of rape)
-Both her and her husband were fired from jobs after the boycott movement ended. She received death threats to the point that her brother needed to leave for her safety. John Conyers gave her a job and she was able to get back on her feet
-Starts off as committee of Equal Justice for Recy Taylor and just turns into Committee of Equal Justice.
Recy Taylor, a 24-year-old African-American woman was walking home from church in Abbeville, Ala., on the night of Sept. 3, 1944, when she was abducted and raped by six white men.The crime was extensively covered in the black press and an early catalyst for the civil rights movement. The N.A.A.C.P. sent a young activist from its Montgomery, Ala., chapter named Rosa Parks to investigate. African-Americans around the country demanded that the men be prosecuted.But the attack, like many involving black victims during the Jim Crow era in the South, never went to trial. Two all-white, all-male grand juries refused to indict the men, even though one of them had confessed.
In 1945, he was accused of raping a white woman. The all-white jury took less than three minutes to find him guilty and McGee was sentenced to death. Over the next six years, the case went through three trials and sparked international protests and appeals. But in 1951, McGee was put to death in Mississippi's traveling electric chair.
Jo Ann Robinson
-When Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to move to the back of the bus on December 1, 1955, Robinson spent the entire night printing out 35,000 handbills calling for a boycott of the Montgomery bus system. She and supporters passed the flyers out on Friday afternoon which called for a one day boycott to begin the following Monday. After the successful one-day boycott, other local leaders including Reverends Ralph Abernathy and Martin Luther King.
-Jo Ann Robinson helped sustain the year long boycott by providing transportation for numerous black residents. Eventually a court ruling forced Montgomery to desegregate its busses. Moreover the boycott, the first successful protest of segregation in the Deep South, inspired other civil rights demonstrations in the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s.
Women's Political Council
-The Women's Political Council (WPC) of Montgomery, Alabama was founded in 1946 by scholar and Alabama State College professor Mary Fair Burks. The Council was a political organization meant to fight the institutionalized racism of Montgomery, Alabama, and an organization that provided leadership opportunities for women.
-Burks was inspired to form the organization after a traffic dispute involving a white woman resulted in her arrest. In response she created a community organization that would teach local African Americans their constitutional rights and stimulate voter registration among them.
-Played crucial role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott movement.
The grassroots campaign through the WPC and ED Nixon helped to jumpstart this
-ED Nixon chose MLK to serve as the public figure for the movement (King was a newcomer so he hadn't been paid.. He was young, fresh, and not tainted. The white folks hadn't put their "hands" on him yet) in conjunction with Robinson as he came from a very progressive church. They chose to pick the minister because it's a shortcut to getting the congregation and a quick buy in. You get instant resources for the movement.
-The original Rosa Parks
-Arrested for refusing to give up her seat
-Contrary to popular belief, She wasn't pregnant at the time. She was isolated and felt alone and a sweet talker came along and got her pregnant and left
Browder v. Gayle
A case by 4 women who challenged Montgomery's city ordinances calling for racial segregation on public transportation. Ruling favored that the bus segregation was unconstitutional.
Fannie Lou Hamer
-Worked for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, which fought racial segregation and injustice in the South. In 1964, helped found the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, which was established in opposition to her state's all-white delegation to that year's Democratic convention. She brought the civil rights struggle in Mississippi to the attention of the entire nation during a televised session at the convention.
-spoke out about a forced hysterectomy she received and told a congressional committee in 1964 about being subjected to a sexualized beating in a Winona, Miss., jailhouse.
Referred to as the founding mother of SNCC. Served as the Executive Secretary of the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Council) and organized the founding conference of the SNCC.
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was one of the major Civil Rights Movement organizations of the 1960s. It emerged from the first wave of student sit-ins starting in Greensboro North Carolina and formed at an April 1960 meeting organized by Ella Baker at Shaw University
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Started With Rosa Parks situation when browder V. Gayle took effect that declared bus segregation illegal in Alabama. It was ran by women political council and E.D. Nixon
-Gertrude Perkins is never mentioned in the history books, but she had as much to do with the bus boycott as anyone on earth
-Two white police officers kidnapped and raped Gertrude Perkins, an African-American woman, in 1949. Instead of remaining silent, she told her minister, Reverend Solomon S. Seay Sr., and he encouraged her to press charges. Local black activists and ministers rallied to her defense and launched a citywide campaign to bring her assailants to trial. Their public protests were so effective, the "Perkins case" appeared on the front page of the Advertiser, the local "white" newspaper, for nearly two months. In the end, however, an all-white, all-male grand jury refused to indict the policemen. Still, it was the first time the black ministers were, as Seay put it, "all shook up."
Endesa Ida Mae Holland
-She felt a disconnect with her community but she felt her place within the movement
-She was raped at 11. Wife of rapist facilitated this
-Began to devalue herself and became promiscuous
-Her mother urged her not to get involved with the movement, in fear of her safety. Her mother died after the KKK firebombed their house.
Rosa Lee Coates
A black teenager from Hattiesburg, Miss., told an all-white jury that Norman Cannon kidnapped and raped her in 1965. The jury sentenced Cannon to life in prison — the first time a white man served an entire life sentence for raping a black woman in Mississippi. He appealed in 2005 and was denied.
Betty Jean Owens
1959; an African American woman (FAMU Student) that was raped by four white men in Tallahassee, Florida. Her trial was monumental for the South because all four men were sentenced to life in prison. That severe of charges was not common in the South
When a white jailer tried to rape Joan Little, a 20-year-old inmate in North Carolina, in 1974, she killed him with an ice pick and escaped. A jury agreed that even black women, vilified for so long and denied the right to their own bodies, had the right to defend themselves with violence, if necessary. Like her defense of Taylor in 1944, Rosa Parks helped lead the Detroit chapter of the "Free Joan Little" campaign.
-Grandather of Rosa Parks who taught her to "not put up with bad treatment from anybody"
-Son of white plantation owner and slave mistress
-Object of plantation mistreatment, beat mercilessly after mother and father died
-"Intense, passionate hatred for white people"
-Often passed for white (silky brown hair and light complexion)
White Citizens' Councils
American White Supremacy group with about 60,000 members mostly in the South, known for it's opposition to racial integration, involved protection of "European-American Heritage" from those of other ethnicities. Members used their economic and political power to intimidate African Americans who challenged segregation.
NAACP member who met with the Little Rock 9 at her house every day before school to talk about the days' events and strategies.Played a leading role in the Little Rock Intergration Crisis.
Robert F. Williams
-He and wife Mabel were both US Marines and civil rights activists, he was president of local NAACP chapter, he fled to Cuba, wrote a book, became blacklisted
Founded Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM)
-author of Radio Free Dixie & Negroes With Guns
In the South, doctors would perform experiments and procedures such as hysterectomies on Black women, without their permission and/or knowledge. This practice was so common that it became known as a "mississippi appendectomy"
James Baldwin Quote
-"You're not worried about me marrying your daughter, you're worried about me marrying your wife's daughter. I've been marrying your daughter since the days of slavery" Page 153
-You've raped the black women (the sham, contradiction, hypocrisy) and those are your kids, but your wife's kids, who are white, is who you're worried about
Two black boys were placed into a detention for about four years after consensually kissing a white girl. The white little girl told her mother who made it as the black boys tried to rape the white girl and they were arrested and convicted and sent to a detention center. 4 years later they were finally released.
-A northern activist who was recruited to SNCC to help with the McComb Project, which was a project that supported the opening of a voter registration school to prepare voters for voter's literacy test.
-"Not thinking about how I'm going to die, but I'm going to live"
-Coming to terms with your fear. Sitting down the white students before they were getting ready to go.
Friend with Hurst, a member of Congress/Senate, who was assassinated by Hurst, shot in head for being apart of the movement
The Freedom Summer campaign was organized by a coalition called the Mississippi Council of Federated Organizations, which was led by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and included the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). By mobilizing volunteer white college students from the North to join them, the coalition scored a major public relations coup as hundreds of reporters came to Mississippi from around the country to cover the voter-registration campaign.