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5 billion years ago

the earth came into existence around?

40,000 years ago

modern human beings arrived around?

before writing

the term ''prehistory'' refers to the period before?


In regard to genetic makeup and body chemistry, the difference between humans and apes is?


as early as five million years ago, which of the following flourished in east Africa?

"the southern ape"

what does australopithecus mean?

intelligence and language skills

the most important development of homo erectus was?

200,000 years ago

homo sapiens had appeared in almost all the habitable regions of the world by around ?

hunter and gatherers (foraged for food)

which of the following statements is true of the inhabitants of the Paleolithic age?

age, strength, courage, intelligence, fertility, force of personality, or some other trait

most scholars believe that during the Paleolithic Age, social organization was characterized by?

thirty to fifty members

paleolithic bands were made up of roughly how many members?

one of the most prominent paleolithic settlements in central Japan

Jomon was?

Shanidar cave (250 miles north of Baghdad)

the most notable deliberate Neandertal burial was discovered at?

Homo sapiens sapiens

a Cro-Magnon human is classified as a?


the first human beings of the fully modern type were the?

small sculptures of women, usually depicted with exaggerated sexual features

the Venus figurines?

efforts to exercise "sympathetic magic" to gain control over subjects by capturing their spirits

One of the interpretations of the Cro-Magnon cave paintings is that they represent?

trying to gain control over subjects by capturing their spirits

what is sympathetic magic?

"agricultural transition"

instead of the potentially misleading term "agricultural revolution", many anthropologists prefer the term?

slash and burn cultivation

the earliest known agricultural technique was?

5 million

the mastery of agriculture led to a population explosion. from a sparse population of around four million in 10,000 BCE, the global figure rose by around 500 BCE to around how many people?


one of the earliest Neolithic settlements, which was located at a freshwater oasis north of the Dead Sea and had a population of around two thousand was ____ ?

Catal Huyuk

which well known Neolithic settlement was located in south central Anatolia and had a population of around eight thousand?


the earliest of the three Neolithic craft industries was?


the earliest metal worked systematically by humans was?


the ultimate source of wealth in any agricultural society is?

frogs or butterflies that dramatically changed form during the course of their lives

because of the changing nature of agriculture, Neolithic worshippers sometimes associated fertility with animals like?

neolithic towns served the needs of their inhabitants and immediate neighbors, cities decisively influenced the political, economic, and cultural life of large regions.

cities differed from Neolithic villages in two principal ways. First, cities were larger and more complex than Neolithic villages. The second difference was that?

Uruk in Mesopotamia

Gilgamesh was associated with what city?

one of Gilgamesh's friends

Enkidu was?

it DID address; friendship, loyalty, ambition, fear of death, and longing for immortality... FFALL

Which of the following subjects was not addressed in the Epic of Gilgamesh?

early 4th millennium BCE in southwest asia, particularly in Mesopotamia

the earliest urban societies developed in the?

from the Greek word "the land between the rivers"

the word Mesopotamia means?

the Semetic family of languages including Akkadian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Phoenician

the word Semitic refers to?

Sumerian cities

Eridu, Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Nippur, and Kish were all associated with?


a Mesopotamian stepped pyramid was known as?

city-states; formal government institutions that wielded authority throughout their territories

after 3000 BCE all Sumerian cities were ruled by what form of government?

Sargon of Akkad

the creator of the first empire in Mesopotamia was?

Sargon of Akkad

mesopotamian cultural and political brilliance reached its peak during the reign of?


what individual believed that the gods had chosen him to "promote the welfare of the people and to cause justice to prevail in the land?"

"the law of retaliation" where offenders suffered punishments resembling their violations

the words "lex talionis" relate to?


The Babylonians eventually fell in 1595 BCE to the?

the Assyrian Empire

The later Mesopotamian people who around 1000BCE built a large empire based on a powerful army with iron weapons and who made extensive use of terror were the?


what mesopotamian society built the largest empire?

King Nebuchadnezzar

a Babylonian resurgence of power was led in the 6th century BCE by?


the famous hanging gardens of the ancient world were located in?

much harder and stronger implements...experimentation with copper metallurgy led to the invention of bronze

mesopotamian metalworkers discovered that if they alloyed copper and tin they could produce?

Hittites in Anatolia

iron metallurgy came to Mesopotamia from the?


the first people in the world to use wheeled vehicles were the?

became more sharply defined than those of neolithic villages...agriculture enabled human groups to accumulate wealth which caused distinctions between the poor and wealthy to appear

social distinctions in Mesopotamia?


in mesopotamia, prisoners of war, convicted criminals, and heavily indebted individuals were the three main sources for?

a patriarchal society

mesopotamia developed into?


the patriarch of the Hebrews was?

Hebrews (Israelites)

Ethical monotheism was the tradition of the?

Ten Commandments

Hebrew law?


Hebrew monotheism has its origins with?

Phoenician scribes

the first simplified alphabet, containing only twenty-two letters, was created by the?

IS of Indo European origin: Sanskrit, Old Persian, Greek, Latin, hindi, Farsi, and most European languages. NOT included: Basque, Finnish, and Hungarian

which of the following languages is not of Indo-European origin?

steppe region of modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia

the original homeland of the Indo- Europeans was?


the most influential ancient Indo-European migrants into southwest Asia were the?


which of the following societies began the custom of embalming to preserve the body for its life after death?


around ____ BCE, peoples of the eastern sudan started to domesticate cattle and became nomadic herders


the early Sudanic societies recognized a single divine force as the source of god and evil, and they associated it with?

5000 BCE

due to a climatic shift the Sahara desert, which had been cool and well watered, became increasingly arid and uninhabitable around?


the greek historian Herodotus used the phrase the "gift of the ____" to describe Egypt

small kingdoms

the earliest Egyptian and Nubian states were


Egypt was united around 3100 BCE by the conqueror?

Horus, the sky god

Egyptians associated the early pharaohs with?

Old Kingdom

the largest Egyptian pyramids were built during the ?


_______ built the largest of all the pyramids


During the third millennium the Egyptians traded with the Nubian kingdom of?


the capital of the kingdom of Kush was?

an Egyptian explorer who made four expeditions to Nubia

Harkhuf was?

not as powerful as the pharaohs in the Old kingdom

Pharaohs in the Middle Kingdom were?

a Semitic people from southwest asia

The Hyksos were?


horse drawn chariots and bronze weapons were introduced into Egypt by the?

Tuthmosis III

the most vigorous of all New Kingdom pharaohs was ________, who led his troops into Palestine and Syria and who even received tribute from the Mesopotamian city-states

New Kingdom

The Egyptians were the most imperialistic during the?

kingdom of Kush

During the eighth century B.C.E Egypt fell under the control of the _______ for around a century

conquered Thebes and founded a Kushite dynasty

around 760 BCE the Kushite King Kashta?

Assyrian rule

in the mid-seventh century BCE Egypt lost its independence and became a part of?


the conqueror Menes founded _____ around 3100 BCE, a city that would serve as the capital for early Egypt

a female pharaoh of Egypt who served as a coruler with her stepson Tuthmosis III

Hatshepsut was?

Egypt and Nubia

In which of the following societies did women enjoy the most freedom and opportunity?

there is abundant evidence of many women rulers

In Kush...?

a regent

a "kandake" was?

arose independently from local experimentation ith iorn ores and the earliest traces of African iron production date from about 900 BCE in the Great Lakes region of East Africa

In africa, iron metallury?

modern day Somalia and Ethiopia

The Egyptians traded through the Red Sea with a land they called Punt, which was probably?


The greek words meaning "holy inscriptions" refers to?

talks about the privileged life of a scribe

the egyptian work, "The Satire of the Trades,"?

scholars have not been able to understand Meroitic writing....Nubian scribes devised an alphabetic script for the Meroitic language after the transfer of the Kushite capital from Napata to Meroe

Meroitic writing..?

during the old and middle kingdom, priests increasingly associated the two gods with one another and honored them in the cult of Amon-Re (both sun gods)

the cult of Amon-Re?

that egyptians and nubians believed that dieties played prominent roles in the world......also the development of organized religious traditions

the cult of Amon-Re is the best example of?

Amenhotep IV (aka Akhenaten)

what pharaoh tried, unsuccessfully, to transform Egypt into a monotheistic society?


Besides the Hebrews, the only other example of monotheism from the ancient world occurred during the reign of?

The Great Hymn to Aten

the line, "O sole god beside whom there is none! you made the earth as you wished", is drawn from?


the Egyptian god of the underworld was?

weighing their hearts against a feather symbolizing justice

Osiris judged whether or not souls were worthy for immortality by?

Egyptians believed only the ruling elites would survive the grave, so they mummified only pharaohs and their close relatives

during the old kingdom?

the eastern part of modern Nigeria and southern part of modern Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa)

The Bantu originally came from around...?


The tribes, which, as early as 3000 BCE, began to spread their language and agricultural techniques throughout Africa were the?

Indo Europeans

by spreading their language across a huge stretch of Africa, the Bantu played a role similar to that played by the _____ ?

population pressures

the Bantu probably began their migrations because of ?

iron tools and weapons

by the middle of the first millennium BCE the Bantu people had begun to produce?


The chief god of the early Aryans was?

tensions between them subsided

After the Aryans and Dravidians mixed and intermingled...?

it was a site of Paleolithic communities

archaeologists have proven that 200,000 years ago in India...?

Harappan society

the earliest known civilization in India was the?

many of the earliest physical remains are inaccessible due to silt deposits and it sits below a water table and also because there's a lack of deciphered written records

Much of the early Harappan history remains a mystery because?


if the greek historian Herodotus had known of the Harappan society, he might have used the phrase "the gift of the ______" to describe it

the Indus Valley

chickens were first domesticated in?

a powerful, wealthy Harappan city in the Indus Valley

mohenjo-daro was?


two especially prominent cities of the first Indian society were Harappa and?

35 to 40,000 people

at its height, population of Mohenjo- Daro reached?

depended on a successful agricultural economy

evidence, relating to trade, indicates that Harappan India ?

TRUE: didnt build pyramids/palaces/tombs, but their leaders wielded great authority from citadels. rich and poor lived very different lifestyles

which statement about Harappan society is false?

reflected a strong concern for fertility (fertility cults) and they associated gods and goddesses with creation and procreation

harappan religion?

survived and found places later in the Hindu pantheon

some scholars believe that, after the collapse of the Harappan society, Harappan deities...?

ecological degradation (natural disasters, desertification)

One of the biggest reasons for the decline of the Harappan society was..?

nomadic and pastoral peoples speaking Indo-European languages

the Aryans were?

during 1500 BCE when they began to file through the passes of the Hindu Kush mountains and establish small herding and agricultural communities throughout northern India

the Aryans came into India?

TRUE: migrations took place over several centuries, Dravidians and Indo-Europeans intermarried and interacted, kept horses and cattle, didnt use writing but preserved things by orally transmitting them in their sacred language "Sanskrit" called the Vedas (there are 4 of them

which of the following statements about Indo-Europeans is NOT true?

they had horse drawn chariots

the biggest military advantage of the Indo- Europeans was?

noble people

The Indo-Europeans who entered India called themselves Aryans, which means?

the Vedas

most of our information about the early Aryans comes from the?


the Aryans referred to social classes by the term?


which of the following social classes in the caste system is associated with warriors and aristocrats?

brahmins, kshatriyas, vaishyas, and shudras BKVS

which of the following answers reflects the early varna hierarchy from highest to lowest?


the task of butchering animals or handling dead bodies usually fell to the ?

a subcaste

a jati is?

Lawbook of Manu

the first century BCE work that dealt with moral behavior and social relationships was the?


when a Hindu widow voluntarily threw herself on her dead husband's funeral pyre it was known as?

complex and generated increasingly specialized occupations

Vedic society was?


what Aryan god was associated with war and rain?

presided over the sky and that he oversaw behavior of mortals and preserved cosmic order and that he despised lying and evil deeds

the Aryans believed that Varuna?

Aryan heaven

the "World of the Fathers"

the performance of ritual sacrifices

the most important aspect of the Aryan religion during the early Vedic times was?


the hallucinogenic concoction drunk by Aryans during ritual sacrifices was known as?

a body of works that began to appear late in the Vedic age, about 800 to 400 BCE

the Upanishads were?

to escape the cycle of birth and rebirth and enter into permanent union with Brahman

In Hinduism the highest goal of the individual soul was?

the workings of karma

this passage from the Upanishads explains what Hindu concept? "According as a man acts and walks in the path of life, so he becomes. He that does good becomes good; he that does evil becomes"

ascticism and meditation

the two principal means to achieve the goal of moksha are?


the legendary founder of the Xia dynasty, who constructed dikes and dams and organized flood control projects, was...?

Xia dynasty

King Yu was famous for founding the?

King Shun

the legendary early Chinese sage-king who ordered the four seasons and who established uniform weights, measures, and units of time was?

400,000 years ago

human beings made their appearance in East Asia as early as?

Yellow River (Huang He)

which river takes its name from loess soil?

China's Sorrow

the Huang He river was given the nickname?

the Yellow River because its altered its course many times and has caused so much destruction

"China's Sorrow" was the nickname for?

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