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as early as five million years ago, which of the following flourished in east Africa?
200,000 years ago
homo sapiens had appeared in almost all the habitable regions of the world by around ?
hunter and gatherers (foraged for food)
which of the following statements is true of the inhabitants of the Paleolithic age?
age, strength, courage, intelligence, fertility, force of personality, or some other trait
most scholars believe that during the Paleolithic Age, social organization was characterized by?
Shanidar cave (250 miles north of Baghdad)
the most notable deliberate Neandertal burial was discovered at?
efforts to exercise "sympathetic magic" to gain control over subjects by capturing their spirits
One of the interpretations of the Cro-Magnon cave paintings is that they represent?
instead of the potentially misleading term "agricultural revolution", many anthropologists prefer the term?
the mastery of agriculture led to a population explosion. from a sparse population of around four million in 10,000 BCE, the global figure rose by around 500 BCE to around how many people?
one of the earliest Neolithic settlements, which was located at a freshwater oasis north of the Dead Sea and had a population of around two thousand was ____ ?
which well known Neolithic settlement was located in south central Anatolia and had a population of around eight thousand?
frogs or butterflies that dramatically changed form during the course of their lives
because of the changing nature of agriculture, Neolithic worshippers sometimes associated fertility with animals like?
neolithic towns served the needs of their inhabitants and immediate neighbors, cities decisively influenced the political, economic, and cultural life of large regions.
cities differed from Neolithic villages in two principal ways. First, cities were larger and more complex than Neolithic villages. The second difference was that?
it DID address; friendship, loyalty, ambition, fear of death, and longing for immortality... FFALL
Which of the following subjects was not addressed in the Epic of Gilgamesh?
early 4th millennium BCE in southwest asia, particularly in Mesopotamia
the earliest urban societies developed in the?
the Semetic family of languages including Akkadian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Phoenician
the word Semitic refers to?
city-states; formal government institutions that wielded authority throughout their territories
after 3000 BCE all Sumerian cities were ruled by what form of government?
Sargon of Akkad
mesopotamian cultural and political brilliance reached its peak during the reign of?
what individual believed that the gods had chosen him to "promote the welfare of the people and to cause justice to prevail in the land?"
"the law of retaliation" where offenders suffered punishments resembling their violations
the words "lex talionis" relate to?
the Assyrian Empire
The later Mesopotamian people who around 1000BCE built a large empire based on a powerful army with iron weapons and who made extensive use of terror were the?
much harder and stronger implements...experimentation with copper metallurgy led to the invention of bronze
mesopotamian metalworkers discovered that if they alloyed copper and tin they could produce?
became more sharply defined than those of neolithic villages...agriculture enabled human groups to accumulate wealth which caused distinctions between the poor and wealthy to appear
social distinctions in Mesopotamia?
in mesopotamia, prisoners of war, convicted criminals, and heavily indebted individuals were the three main sources for?
the first simplified alphabet, containing only twenty-two letters, was created by the?
IS of Indo European origin: Sanskrit, Old Persian, Greek, Latin, hindi, Farsi, and most European languages. NOT included: Basque, Finnish, and Hungarian
which of the following languages is not of Indo-European origin?
steppe region of modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia
the original homeland of the Indo- Europeans was?
which of the following societies began the custom of embalming to preserve the body for its life after death?
around ____ BCE, peoples of the eastern sudan started to domesticate cattle and became nomadic herders
the early Sudanic societies recognized a single divine force as the source of god and evil, and they associated it with?
due to a climatic shift the Sahara desert, which had been cool and well watered, became increasingly arid and uninhabitable around?
the most vigorous of all New Kingdom pharaohs was ________, who led his troops into Palestine and Syria and who even received tribute from the Mesopotamian city-states
kingdom of Kush
During the eighth century B.C.E Egypt fell under the control of the _______ for around a century
the conqueror Menes founded _____ around 3100 BCE, a city that would serve as the capital for early Egypt
Egypt and Nubia
In which of the following societies did women enjoy the most freedom and opportunity?
arose independently from local experimentation ith iorn ores and the earliest traces of African iron production date from about 900 BCE in the Great Lakes region of East Africa
In africa, iron metallury?
modern day Somalia and Ethiopia
The Egyptians traded through the Red Sea with a land they called Punt, which was probably?
scholars have not been able to understand Meroitic writing....Nubian scribes devised an alphabetic script for the Meroitic language after the transfer of the Kushite capital from Napata to Meroe
during the old and middle kingdom, priests increasingly associated the two gods with one another and honored them in the cult of Amon-Re (both sun gods)
the cult of Amon-Re?
that egyptians and nubians believed that dieties played prominent roles in the world......also the development of organized religious traditions
the cult of Amon-Re is the best example of?
Amenhotep IV (aka Akhenaten)
what pharaoh tried, unsuccessfully, to transform Egypt into a monotheistic society?
Besides the Hebrews, the only other example of monotheism from the ancient world occurred during the reign of?
The Great Hymn to Aten
the line, "O sole god beside whom there is none! you made the earth as you wished", is drawn from?
weighing their hearts against a feather symbolizing justice
Osiris judged whether or not souls were worthy for immortality by?
Egyptians believed only the ruling elites would survive the grave, so they mummified only pharaohs and their close relatives
during the old kingdom?
the eastern part of modern Nigeria and southern part of modern Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa)
The Bantu originally came from around...?
The tribes, which, as early as 3000 BCE, began to spread their language and agricultural techniques throughout Africa were the?
by spreading their language across a huge stretch of Africa, the Bantu played a role similar to that played by the _____ ?
iron tools and weapons
by the middle of the first millennium BCE the Bantu people had begun to produce?
it was a site of Paleolithic communities
archaeologists have proven that 200,000 years ago in India...?
many of the earliest physical remains are inaccessible due to silt deposits and it sits below a water table and also because there's a lack of deciphered written records
Much of the early Harappan history remains a mystery because?
if the greek historian Herodotus had known of the Harappan society, he might have used the phrase "the gift of the ______" to describe it
depended on a successful agricultural economy
evidence, relating to trade, indicates that Harappan India ?
TRUE: didnt build pyramids/palaces/tombs, but their leaders wielded great authority from citadels. rich and poor lived very different lifestyles
which statement about Harappan society is false?
reflected a strong concern for fertility (fertility cults) and they associated gods and goddesses with creation and procreation
survived and found places later in the Hindu pantheon
some scholars believe that, after the collapse of the Harappan society, Harappan deities...?
ecological degradation (natural disasters, desertification)
One of the biggest reasons for the decline of the Harappan society was..?
during 1500 BCE when they began to file through the passes of the Hindu Kush mountains and establish small herding and agricultural communities throughout northern India
the Aryans came into India?
TRUE: migrations took place over several centuries, Dravidians and Indo-Europeans intermarried and interacted, kept horses and cattle, didnt use writing but preserved things by orally transmitting them in their sacred language "Sanskrit" called the Vedas (there are 4 of them
which of the following statements about Indo-Europeans is NOT true?
which of the following social classes in the caste system is associated with warriors and aristocrats?
brahmins, kshatriyas, vaishyas, and shudras BKVS
which of the following answers reflects the early varna hierarchy from highest to lowest?
Lawbook of Manu
the first century BCE work that dealt with moral behavior and social relationships was the?
when a Hindu widow voluntarily threw herself on her dead husband's funeral pyre it was known as?
presided over the sky and that he oversaw behavior of mortals and preserved cosmic order and that he despised lying and evil deeds
the Aryans believed that Varuna?
the performance of ritual sacrifices
the most important aspect of the Aryan religion during the early Vedic times was?
a body of works that began to appear late in the Vedic age, about 800 to 400 BCE
the Upanishads were?
to escape the cycle of birth and rebirth and enter into permanent union with Brahman
In Hinduism the highest goal of the individual soul was?
the workings of karma
this passage from the Upanishads explains what Hindu concept? "According as a man acts and walks in the path of life, so he becomes. He that does good becomes good; he that does evil becomes"
the legendary founder of the Xia dynasty, who constructed dikes and dams and organized flood control projects, was...?
the legendary early Chinese sage-king who ordered the four seasons and who established uniform weights, measures, and units of time was?
the Yellow River because its altered its course many times and has caused so much destruction
"China's Sorrow" was the nickname for?
an entire neolithic village at Banpo (fine painted pottery and bone tools)
the most important archaeological site from the Neolithic Yangshao culture is ?
the first attempt to organize public life in China on a large scale occurred during the?
the Shang rulers were strengthened by their control over the technological advantage of?
heavenly powers that granted the right to govern to an especially deserving individual known as the son of heaven
the mandate of heaven..?
rely on a decentralized administration: they entrusted power, authority, and responsibility to subordinates who in return owed allegiance, tribute, and military support to the central government
because of the immense size of the Zhou state, its emperors were forced to?
one of the reasons for the eventual collapse of the Zhou dynasty was the inability of its emperors to control the production of?
the patriarchal head of the family
in ancient China, which group presided at the rites and ceremonies honoring ancestors' spirits?
which group retained much more influence on family structure in China than in other lands?
the Book of Songs
the lines, "this young lady is going to her future home, and will order well her chamber and house," come from?
human enemies, deteriorated on bamboo, or were burned by an emperor
many of the early Chinese literary works were destroyed by?
WAS a classic: book of Changes, History, Etiquette(Rites), Songs (Poetry and Odes) CHERSOP
which of the following works was not one of the Zhou classics?
the early Chinese shipped textiles and metal goods to the ancestors of the Turks and Mongols in the steppes and received what in return?
but they often engaged in bitter wars, since the relatively poor nomads frequently fell upon the rich agricultural society and sought to seize its wealth
the nomadic tribes to the north and west of China traded with the Zhou..?
gods shed their own blood to water the earth and nourish maize and they expected human beings to honor them by intimidating their sacrifice
ritual bloodletting was crucial to Maya rituals because..?
the first society of Mesoamerica, which founded traditions followed by all later societies, was the..?
delivered a portion of their harvests for the maintenance of the elite classes and provided labor for construction projects
the Olmec common people...?
the Olmecs and then abandoned
the Olmec ceremonial centers of San Lorenzo and La Venta were destroyed by?
DID trade: art fashioned from jade, basalt, or ceramics, and local products such as animal skins..jade and obisdian
the Olmecs traded extensively in all of the following items except?
Which of the following devices did the ancient Maya build in order to trap silt carried by the numerous rivers passing through the Mesoamerican lowlands?
which of the following mathematical concepts, essential for positional notation and the manipulation of large numbers, was invented by Mayan mathematicians?
the maya believed that monumental change would occur whenever their ceremonial and solar calendars returned to their respective starting points at the same time. This event took place every _____ solar years
the most flexible and sophisticated system of writing found in the ancient Americas was created by?
maize and water
according to the Popol Vuh, the gods created the first successful version of humans out of..?
spread through most of the territory occupied by modern Peru and vanished about 300 BCE and the extensive distribution of temples and carvings shows that they seized the imagination of agricultural peoples throughout the central Andean region
the Chavin cult...?
one of the earliest Andean states, which left a remarkable artistic legacy through its ceramics, was...?
Malayan, Indonesian, Filipino, Polynesian, and other Oceanic languages are derived from?
the Austronesian-speaking peoples became the first human settlers on this large island off the east African coast...?
they traded with each other
which statement correctly describes the relationship between the aboriginal peoples of Australia and New Guinea?
were the earliest Austronesian migrants to sail out into the blue water of the Pacific Ocean and establish human settlements in Pacific Islands
the Lapita peoples...?
Chiefly political societies
Austronesian peoples established what type of political societies in the lands they settled?
in organizing their empire, Persian rulers relied heavily on techniques of administration from the?
Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Sasanid
which of the following lists of Persian empires is correct chronologically?
part of the larger Indo-European migrations and they lived in loose subjection to the Babylonian and Assyrian empires when they lived in central Asia
the Medes and Persians were originally?
a new category of officials created by the rulers who traveled throughout the empire and conducted surprise audits and collected intelligence of the satraps
the Persian "eyes and ears of the king"?
not to make their conquered lands change their government laws, but to modify them as needed...less rebellions
the classical Persian governmental approach was ?
which of the following empires normally displayed the greatest degree of toleration toward its subject peoples?
portray themselves not as conquerors, but as rulers/representatives
the Persian legal code was designed to ?
the greek historian Herodotus
who used the words, "neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of the appointed rounds," to describe the Persian courier service?
the Jews in the Achaemenid empire
for his decision to allow them to return to their capital city and rebuild their temple, Darius received high praise from these people. who were they?
were created when Alexander died and his chief generals carved his empire into three large realms which they divided among themselves
the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanid empires...?
the empire, compromising most of the old Achaemenid state, that was taken by a general of Alexander the Great was the?
a ruler of the Sasanids and stabilized their western frontier and crated a series of buffer states between themselves and the Roman empire
Shapur I was?
a slave named Gimillu who served the temple community in Uruk and his career reveals that slaves sometimes had administrative talents and took on tasks involving considerable responsibility, and slaves sometimes enjoyed relationships with powerful individuals who could protect them from enemies
a religion founded in Persia by Zarathustra..had a main deity Ahura Mazda and 6 lesser deites.
Zarathustra talked about the battle between the "wise lord" Ahura Mazda and the evil spirit?
as a blessing that reflected the benevolent nature of Ahura Mazda
Zarathustra viewed the material world?
the words "good words, good thoughts, good deeds" were used to sum up the view of morality of the?
adopted Legalist principles and imposed centralized imperial rule on all of China
the Qin and Han dynasties?
could not be solved by addressing abstruse philosophical questions
Confucius believed that political and social harmony?
the chinese concept of filial piety, which was central to the family structure, was best expressed by the word?
when discussing qualities that were essential to a good character, Confucius used which of the following terms to mean an attitude of kindness or a sense of humanity?
became the core texts of the traditional chinese education
through the efforts of Confucius, the literary works of the Zhou period?
the most influential post- Confucian philosopher, who served as the chief spokesman for Confucius's philosophy, was?
the Chinese philosopher who proposed that only strong social discipline would bring society into order was?
the philosophy that criticized social activism and, instead, proposed a life reflection and introspection was?
disengagement from the competitive exertions and active involvement in affairs of the world
the Daoist thinkers spoke of wuwei, which stood for?
what was the school of philosophical thought that returned order to china after the Period of Warring States?
imposing harsh penalties (legalist doctrine)
Shang Yang and Han Feizi hoped to control China's subjects by?
imposing harsh penalties , collective responsibility before the law
in an effort to bring about effective governmental control, the Legalists?
Shang Yang, who served as cheif minister to the duke of the Qin state in western China
the Book of Lord Shang is one of the most influential works of ?
according to the Legalist philosophies of the Qin, the foundations of a state's strength were armed forces and?
the chinese emperor who was notorious for his hatred of Confucianism and for his burning of books was?
standardized Chinese script/ tomb of the first emperor (army statues)
Qin Shihuangdi's most important contribution to China was?
the most powerful Han emperor, known for his administrative centralization and imperial expansion, was?
by establishing an imperial university that prepared young men for government service
in 124 BCE, Han Wudi transformed China by?
Xiongnu, a nomadic people from the steppes of central asia who spoke a turkish language
which group of people was the greatest military threat to the Han dynasty?
Admonitions for Women
which popular treatise emphasized humility, obedience, subservience, and devotion to their husbands as the virtues most appropriate for women?
served as a regent to a two year old who inherited the Han imperial throne, and seized the throne
a Greek ambassador named Megasthenes
although only fragments remain, some of our best information about early Indian history come from the book, Indika, written by?
Persians under the emperor Darius
the Indian political scene changed dramatically in 520 BCE when new administrative techniques were introduced after the invasion of the?
Alexander of Macedon's invasion of this country in 327 BCE caused political chaos that eventually led to the unification of what country?
the kingdom that played a leading role in Indian unification, after the withdrawal of Alexander of Macedon, was?
a systematic advisor who devised procedures for the governance of Chandragupta's realm
debasing their currency- reducing the amount of precious metal in a coin without reducing its nominal value
one of the biggest financial problems of the later Mauryan period was the ruler's decision to?
did not crumble into anarchy. instead, local rulers formed a series of kingdoms that brought order to large regions
after the collapse of the Mauryan Empire, India?
after the collapse of the Mauryan dynasty, northwest India was controlled by the Bactrians, who spoke?
left local government and administration in the hands of their allies in the various regions of their empire
Politically, the Guptas...?
commonly portrayed women as weak-willed and emotional creatures and exalted wives who devoted themselves to their husbands
the two great Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana?
creation of jati (subcastes) and guilds
one of the biggest transformations of the caste system during this period was?
essentially, much of the responsibility for maintaining social order in India during these years fell to?
gods were figments of the imagination, that brahmins were charlatans who enriched themselves by hoodwinking others, and that human beings came from dust and returned to dust like any other animal in the natural world
the Charvaka sect believed?
clearly reflected the increasingly materialistic character of Indian society and economy
the beliefs of the Charvakas?
was a great teacher of Jainism and made Jainist doctrines popular when he turned to Jainism
the religious group that carefully swept the ground before them as they walked to avoid harming any invisible insects was the?
the Jains adhered to the principle of nonviolence to other living things or their souls, which is expressed in the word?
didnt draw distinctions between social classes and castes
the greatest social contribution of the Jains was?
an escape of the cycle of incarnation and attainment of nirvana
the Buddha believed that salvation came from?
the Indian work that deals with a dialogue between the warrior, Arjuna, and his charioteer, Krishna, is the?
castes imposed specific moral duties and responsibilities upon him
When Krishna tells Aruja, in the Bhagavad Gita, "having regards to your own duty, you ought not to falter, for there is nothing better for a kshatriya than a righteous battle," he is referring to what Hindu principle?
the line, "as a man, casting off old clothes, so the embodied self, casting off old bodies, goes to others and new ones," comes from the?
a Greek perspective on a campaign waged by a band of Greek warriors against the city of Troy in Anatolia
the Homeric epic the Illiad deals with?
the Mycenaeans received early, indirect influence from the Egyptians and Phoenicians through their contact with the?
lavish palaces on the island of Crete
the best example of Minoan culture can be seen in the remains at?
of the natural disasters that plagued the Minoans, the most devastating was the volcanic eruption in 1628 BCE on the island of?
the Mycenaeans adapted the Minoan written language to their own needs and developed a syllabic script called?
the leader who forged a compromise between Athen's social classes by allowing the aristocrats to keep their land while also providing representation for the common classes was?
which of the following words was used by the Greeks to refer to generals or politicians who, although often popular, gained power by irregular means?
Athens became the most sophisticated of the poleis, the Peloponnesian War
which of the following events occurred during the time of Pericles?
DID: spread greek language/tradition, quickened the tempo of social life, local clan leaders built small sates when Greek merchants brought wealth there
which of the following did NOT come about because of Greek colonization?
the largest part of Alexander's conquests, essentially the former Achaemenid empire, was taken over by?
which of the following people wrote that Alexander the Great possessed, "great personal beauty, invincible power of endurance, and a keen intellect"?
fell under the authority of their fathers, husbands, and sons. spent most of their time in the family home, and were supervised and wore veils when they went outside
which of the following statements is true about women in the Greek world?
originally a disciple of Plato, came to distrust the theory of Forms or Ideas, explored the nature of reality in subtle metaphysical works and devised rigorous rules of logic in an effort to construct powerful and compelling arguments
later christian scholastic philosophers referred to this man as "the master of those who know"?
which of the Hellenistic philosophers considered all human beings to be members of a single, universal family?
in an effort to alleviate social tensions, this group was allowed to elect two and then later ten tribunes?
during times of crisis, the Romans would appoint an official with absolute power known as a?
the Roman policy of toleration and respect for conquered peoples was most similar to the?
in the early period of Roman expansion, the principle power in the western Mediterranean was the?
During the Punic Wars, the Romans first fought the Carthaginians over the most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean. Where was it?
a seige formation that troops formed by surrounding themselves with their shields to avoid defenders' missiles while approaching city walls (literally "the tortoise")
the testudo was?
the leader, supported by the Roman aristocrats, who led a slaughter of more than 10,000 of his political enemies was?
DID: centralize military and political functions, confiscated property from conservatives and distributed it to his veterans/supporters, launched large-scale building projects, extended Roman citizenship to peoples in imperial provinces
after naming himself dictator in 46 BCE, Julius Caesar did all of the following except?
a naval battle at Actium in Greece
Octavian was able to restore order to the Roman world with his victory in 31 BCE at?
stimulated the development of local economies and states
the Roman conquest of Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain?
by the second centruy CE, how much of the total population of the Roman Empire was represented by slaves?
the Roman thinker Marcus Tullius Cicero was best associated with the Hellenistic school of thought?
the information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and lay the foundations for the?
which of the following deserts was one of the most dangerous spots along the silk roads? it's name means "he who enters does not come back out"?
Chang'an, Anticoch/ Tyre
the land route of the silk roads ran from the Han capital of ________ to the Mediterranean port of ______ ?
the fact that by the 1st century CE, southeast Asian kings called themselves rajas shows how they were influenced by the?
the expanding influence of India was shown by the fact that Southeast Asian kings called themselves?
followers of the Greek theologian Nestorius, who emphasized the human as opposed to the divine nature of Jesus
the Nestorians were?
the prophet who promoted a syncretic blend of Zoroastrian, Christian, and Buddhist into a religious faith that would serve the needs of a cosmopolitan world was?
Devout Manichaeans, who abstained from marriage and sexual relations and who devoted their lives to prayer and fasting, were called the?
less zealous Manichaeans who led more conventional lives and provided food and gifts to the elect
the "hearers" were?
the prophet Mani died in chains as a prisoner of the Sasanid emperor under the urging of the?
a quarter to a third
by around the year 600 CE, the ravages of epidemic diseased had caused both the Mediterranean and Chinese populations to fall by?
which of the following men recorded the suffering of Christians caused by epidemic diseases in his "On Morality"?
Yellow Turban uprising
in the year 184 CE, the peasant discontent in China led to an uprising known as the?
the generals divided the empire into 3 large kingdoms
with the collapse in political order after the fall of the Han empire...?
the claimants to the imperial thrown, most were generals who seized power, held it brifely, and then lost it when they were displaced by rivals or their own troops
the "barracks emperors" were?
WAS: defeated most of his enemies, ordered the construction of a new capital city, accepted Christianity in Rome
which of the following was not accomplished by Constantine?
Chaos threatened the Roman Empire in the mid-fifth century CE, when Germanic tribes poured into the empire for protection from?
in 476 CE, the Germanic leader Odovacer brought an end to the western half of the Roman Empire when he overthrew?
eastern half of the empire
after the collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire, imperial authority survived for another thousand years in the?
Christians were allowed to openly practice their religion when the emperor Constantine issued the Edict of..?
in 380 CE, Christianity was proclaimed the official religion of the Roman Empire by the emperor?
St. Augustine made Christian thought more appealing to the educated classes by harmonizing it with _____ thought?
as the only sources of established and recognized authority, the popes and bishops organized governments and defenses for their communities as Roman imperial authority crumbled
in the end, popes won supreme control of the church because?
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