bolin-Unit 1 test

5 billion years ago
the earth came into existence around?
40,000 years ago
modern human beings arrived around?
before writing
the term ''prehistory'' refers to the period before?
In regard to genetic makeup and body chemistry, the difference between humans and apes is?
as early as five million years ago, which of the following flourished in east Africa?
"the southern ape"
what does australopithecus mean?
intelligence and language skills
the most important development of homo erectus was?
200,000 years ago
homo sapiens had appeared in almost all the habitable regions of the world by around ?
hunter and gatherers (foraged for food)
which of the following statements is true of the inhabitants of the Paleolithic age?
age, strength, courage, intelligence, fertility, force of personality, or some other trait
most scholars believe that during the Paleolithic Age, social organization was characterized by?
thirty to fifty members
paleolithic bands were made up of roughly how many members?
one of the most prominent paleolithic settlements in central Japan
Jomon was?
Shanidar cave (250 miles north of Baghdad)
the most notable deliberate Neandertal burial was discovered at?
Homo sapiens sapiens
a Cro-Magnon human is classified as a?
the first human beings of the fully modern type were the?
small sculptures of women, usually depicted with exaggerated sexual features
the Venus figurines?
efforts to exercise "sympathetic magic" to gain control over subjects by capturing their spirits
One of the interpretations of the Cro-Magnon cave paintings is that they represent?
trying to gain control over subjects by capturing their spirits
what is sympathetic magic?
"agricultural transition"
instead of the potentially misleading term "agricultural revolution", many anthropologists prefer the term?
slash and burn cultivation
the earliest known agricultural technique was?
5 million
the mastery of agriculture led to a population explosion. from a sparse population of around four million in 10,000 BCE, the global figure rose by around 500 BCE to around how many people?
one of the earliest Neolithic settlements, which was located at a freshwater oasis north of the Dead Sea and had a population of around two thousand was ____ ?
Catal Huyuk
which well known Neolithic settlement was located in south central Anatolia and had a population of around eight thousand?
the earliest of the three Neolithic craft industries was?
the earliest metal worked systematically by humans was?
the ultimate source of wealth in any agricultural society is?
frogs or butterflies that dramatically changed form during the course of their lives
because of the changing nature of agriculture, Neolithic worshippers sometimes associated fertility with animals like?
neolithic towns served the needs of their inhabitants and immediate neighbors, cities decisively influenced the political, economic, and cultural life of large regions.
cities differed from Neolithic villages in two principal ways. First, cities were larger and more complex than Neolithic villages. The second difference was that?
Uruk in Mesopotamia
Gilgamesh was associated with what city?
one of Gilgamesh's friends
Enkidu was?
it DID address; friendship, loyalty, ambition, fear of death, and longing for immortality... FFALL
Which of the following subjects was not addressed in the Epic of Gilgamesh?
early 4th millennium BCE in southwest asia, particularly in Mesopotamia
the earliest urban societies developed in the?
from the Greek word "the land between the rivers"
the word Mesopotamia means?
the Semetic family of languages including Akkadian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Phoenician
the word Semitic refers to?
Sumerian cities
Eridu, Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Nippur, and Kish were all associated with?
a Mesopotamian stepped pyramid was known as?
city-states; formal government institutions that wielded authority throughout their territories
after 3000 BCE all Sumerian cities were ruled by what form of government?
Sargon of Akkad
the creator of the first empire in Mesopotamia was?
Sargon of Akkad
mesopotamian cultural and political brilliance reached its peak during the reign of?
what individual believed that the gods had chosen him to "promote the welfare of the people and to cause justice to prevail in the land?"
"the law of retaliation" where offenders suffered punishments resembling their violations
the words "lex talionis" relate to?
The Babylonians eventually fell in 1595 BCE to the?
the Assyrian Empire
The later Mesopotamian people who around 1000BCE built a large empire based on a powerful army with iron weapons and who made extensive use of terror were the?
what mesopotamian society built the largest empire?
King Nebuchadnezzar
a Babylonian resurgence of power was led in the 6th century BCE by?
the famous hanging gardens of the ancient world were located in?
much harder and stronger implements...experimentation with copper metallurgy led to the invention of bronze
mesopotamian metalworkers discovered that if they alloyed copper and tin they could produce?
Hittites in Anatolia
iron metallurgy came to Mesopotamia from the?
the first people in the world to use wheeled vehicles were the?
became more sharply defined than those of neolithic villages...agriculture enabled human groups to accumulate wealth which caused distinctions between the poor and wealthy to appear
social distinctions in Mesopotamia?
in mesopotamia, prisoners of war, convicted criminals, and heavily indebted individuals were the three main sources for?
a patriarchal society
mesopotamia developed into?
the patriarch of the Hebrews was?
Hebrews (Israelites)
Ethical monotheism was the tradition of the?
Ten Commandments
Hebrew law?
Hebrew monotheism has its origins with?
Phoenician scribes
the first simplified alphabet, containing only twenty-two letters, was created by the?
IS of Indo European origin: Sanskrit, Old Persian, Greek, Latin, hindi, Farsi, and most European languages. NOT included: Basque, Finnish, and Hungarian
which of the following languages is not of Indo-European origin?
steppe region of modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia
the original homeland of the Indo- Europeans was?
the most influential ancient Indo-European migrants into southwest Asia were the?
which of the following societies began the custom of embalming to preserve the body for its life after death?
around ____ BCE, peoples of the eastern sudan started to domesticate cattle and became nomadic herders
the early Sudanic societies recognized a single divine force as the source of god and evil, and they associated it with?
5000 BCE
due to a climatic shift the Sahara desert, which had been cool and well watered, became increasingly arid and uninhabitable around?
the greek historian Herodotus used the phrase the "gift of the ____" to describe Egypt
small kingdoms
the earliest Egyptian and Nubian states were
Egypt was united around 3100 BCE by the conqueror?
Horus, the sky god
Egyptians associated the early pharaohs with?
Old Kingdom
the largest Egyptian pyramids were built during the ?
_______ built the largest of all the pyramids
During the third millennium the Egyptians traded with the Nubian kingdom of?
the capital of the kingdom of Kush was?
an Egyptian explorer who made four expeditions to Nubia
Harkhuf was?
not as powerful as the pharaohs in the Old kingdom
Pharaohs in the Middle Kingdom were?
a Semitic people from southwest asia
The Hyksos were?
horse drawn chariots and bronze weapons were introduced into Egypt by the?
Tuthmosis III
the most vigorous of all New Kingdom pharaohs was ________, who led his troops into Palestine and Syria and who even received tribute from the Mesopotamian city-states
New Kingdom
The Egyptians were the most imperialistic during the?
kingdom of Kush
During the eighth century B.C.E Egypt fell under the control of the _______ for around a century
conquered Thebes and founded a Kushite dynasty
around 760 BCE the Kushite King Kashta?
Assyrian rule
in the mid-seventh century BCE Egypt lost its independence and became a part of?
the conqueror Menes founded _____ around 3100 BCE, a city that would serve as the capital for early Egypt
a female pharaoh of Egypt who served as a coruler with her stepson Tuthmosis III
Hatshepsut was?
Egypt and Nubia
In which of the following societies did women enjoy the most freedom and opportunity?
there is abundant evidence of many women rulers
In Kush...?
a regent
a "kandake" was?
arose independently from local experimentation ith iorn ores and the earliest traces of African iron production date from about 900 BCE in the Great Lakes region of East Africa
In africa, iron metallury?
modern day Somalia and Ethiopia
The Egyptians traded through the Red Sea with a land they called Punt, which was probably?
The greek words meaning "holy inscriptions" refers to?
talks about the privileged life of a scribe
the egyptian work, "The Satire of the Trades,"?
scholars have not been able to understand Meroitic writing....Nubian scribes devised an alphabetic script for the Meroitic language after the transfer of the Kushite capital from Napata to Meroe
Meroitic writing..?
during the old and middle kingdom, priests increasingly associated the two gods with one another and honored them in the cult of Amon-Re (both sun gods)
the cult of Amon-Re?
that egyptians and nubians believed that dieties played prominent roles in the world......also the development of organized religious traditions
the cult of Amon-Re is the best example of?
Amenhotep IV (aka Akhenaten)
what pharaoh tried, unsuccessfully, to transform Egypt into a monotheistic society?
Besides the Hebrews, the only other example of monotheism from the ancient world occurred during the reign of?
The Great Hymn to Aten
the line, "O sole god beside whom there is none! you made the earth as you wished", is drawn from?
the Egyptian god of the underworld was?
weighing their hearts against a feather symbolizing justice
Osiris judged whether or not souls were worthy for immortality by?
Egyptians believed only the ruling elites would survive the grave, so they mummified only pharaohs and their close relatives
during the old kingdom?
the eastern part of modern Nigeria and southern part of modern Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa)
The Bantu originally came from around...?
The tribes, which, as early as 3000 BCE, began to spread their language and agricultural techniques throughout Africa were the?
Indo Europeans
by spreading their language across a huge stretch of Africa, the Bantu played a role similar to that played by the _____ ?
population pressures
the Bantu probably began their migrations because of ?
iron tools and weapons
by the middle of the first millennium BCE the Bantu people had begun to produce?
The chief god of the early Aryans was?
tensions between them subsided
After the Aryans and Dravidians mixed and intermingled...?
it was a site of Paleolithic communities
archaeologists have proven that 200,000 years ago in India...?
Harappan society
the earliest known civilization in India was the?
many of the earliest physical remains are inaccessible due to silt deposits and it sits below a water table and also because there's a lack of deciphered written records
Much of the early Harappan history remains a mystery because?
if the greek historian Herodotus had known of the Harappan society, he might have used the phrase "the gift of the ______" to describe it
the Indus Valley
chickens were first domesticated in?
a powerful, wealthy Harappan city in the Indus Valley
mohenjo-daro was?
two especially prominent cities of the first Indian society were Harappa and?
35 to 40,000 people
at its height, population of Mohenjo- Daro reached?
depended on a successful agricultural economy
evidence, relating to trade, indicates that Harappan India ?
TRUE: didnt build pyramids/palaces/tombs, but their leaders wielded great authority from citadels. rich and poor lived very different lifestyles
which statement about Harappan society is false?
reflected a strong concern for fertility (fertility cults) and they associated gods and goddesses with creation and procreation
harappan religion?
survived and found places later in the Hindu pantheon
some scholars believe that, after the collapse of the Harappan society, Harappan deities...?
ecological degradation (natural disasters, desertification)
One of the biggest reasons for the decline of the Harappan society was..?
nomadic and pastoral peoples speaking Indo-European languages
the Aryans were?
during 1500 BCE when they began to file through the passes of the Hindu Kush mountains and establish small herding and agricultural communities throughout northern India
the Aryans came into India?
TRUE: migrations took place over several centuries, Dravidians and Indo-Europeans intermarried and interacted, kept horses and cattle, didnt use writing but preserved things by orally transmitting them in their sacred language "Sanskrit" called the Vedas (there are 4 of them
which of the following statements about Indo-Europeans is NOT true?
they had horse drawn chariots
the biggest military advantage of the Indo- Europeans was?
noble people
The Indo-Europeans who entered India called themselves Aryans, which means?
the Vedas
most of our information about the early Aryans comes from the?
the Aryans referred to social classes by the term?
which of the following social classes in the caste system is associated with warriors and aristocrats?
brahmins, kshatriyas, vaishyas, and shudras BKVS
which of the following answers reflects the early varna hierarchy from highest to lowest?
the task of butchering animals or handling dead bodies usually fell to the ?
a subcaste
a jati is?
Lawbook of Manu
the first century BCE work that dealt with moral behavior and social relationships was the?
when a Hindu widow voluntarily threw herself on her dead husband's funeral pyre it was known as?
complex and generated increasingly specialized occupations
Vedic society was?
what Aryan god was associated with war and rain?
presided over the sky and that he oversaw behavior of mortals and preserved cosmic order and that he despised lying and evil deeds
the Aryans believed that Varuna?
Aryan heaven
the "World of the Fathers"
the performance of ritual sacrifices
the most important aspect of the Aryan religion during the early Vedic times was?
the hallucinogenic concoction drunk by Aryans during ritual sacrifices was known as?
a body of works that began to appear late in the Vedic age, about 800 to 400 BCE
the Upanishads were?
to escape the cycle of birth and rebirth and enter into permanent union with Brahman
In Hinduism the highest goal of the individual soul was?
the workings of karma
this passage from the Upanishads explains what Hindu concept? "According as a man acts and walks in the path of life, so he becomes. He that does good becomes good; he that does evil becomes"
ascticism and meditation
the two principal means to achieve the goal of moksha are?
the legendary founder of the Xia dynasty, who constructed dikes and dams and organized flood control projects, was...?
Xia dynasty
King Yu was famous for founding the?
King Shun
the legendary early Chinese sage-king who ordered the four seasons and who established uniform weights, measures, and units of time was?
400,000 years ago
human beings made their appearance in East Asia as early as?
Yellow River (Huang He)
which river takes its name from loess soil?
China's Sorrow
the Huang He river was given the nickname?
the Yellow River because its altered its course many times and has caused so much destruction
"China's Sorrow" was the nickname for?
which Neolithic society flourished in China between 5000 to 3000 BCE?
an entire neolithic village at Banpo (fine painted pottery and bone tools)
the most important archaeological site from the Neolithic Yangshao culture is ?
Xia Dynasty
the first attempt to organize public life in China on a large scale occurred during the?
the capital of the Xia dynasty was?
bronze metallurgy
the Shang rulers were strengthened by their control over the technological advantage of?
the Chinese copied their chariots from the?
30,000 troops
the Shang enjoyed a military advantage with armies as large as?
Ao was an important early capital of the _______ dynasty?
the last capital of the Shang dynasty, which featured lavish tombs for the kings, was?
Which dynasty laid the foundation for principles of government and political legitimacy?
heavenly powers that granted the right to govern to an especially deserving individual known as the son of heaven
the mandate of heaven..?
rely on a decentralized administration: they entrusted power, authority, and responsibility to subordinates who in return owed allegiance, tribute, and military support to the central government
because of the immense size of the Zhou state, its emperors were forced to?
one of the reasons for the eventual collapse of the Zhou dynasty was the inability of its emperors to control the production of?
last violent centuries of the Zhou dynasty
the Period of Warring States refers to the?
the patriarchal head of the family
in ancient China, which group presided at the rites and ceremonies honoring ancestors' spirits?
which group retained much more influence on family structure in China than in other lands?
the chinese began to make extensive use of writing during the ______ dynasty?
oracle bones
in an effort to foretell the future, the Shang made use of?
2,000 characters
writing during the Shang period was made up of around?
the Book of Songs
the lines, "this young lady is going to her future home, and will order well her chamber and house," come from?
human enemies, deteriorated on bamboo, or were burned by an emperor
many of the early Chinese literary works were destroyed by?
WAS a classic: book of Changes, History, Etiquette(Rites), Songs (Poetry and Odes) CHERSOP
which of the following works was not one of the Zhou classics?
Steppe nomads of central asia
early china enjoyed lasting direct long-distance trade with?
the early Chinese shipped textiles and metal goods to the ancestors of the Turks and Mongols in the steppes and received what in return?
but they often engaged in bitter wars, since the relatively poor nomads frequently fell upon the rich agricultural society and sought to seize its wealth
the nomadic tribes to the north and west of China traded with the Zhou..?
the powerful southern rival to the Zhou were the?
gods shed their own blood to water the earth and nourish maize and they expected human beings to honor them by intimidating their sacrifice
ritual bloodletting was crucial to Maya rituals because..?
the staple food of Mesoamerica was?
2000 BCE
agriculture had spread through Mesoamerica by?
the first society of Mesoamerica, which founded traditions followed by all later societies, was the..?
"rubber people"
the term Olmec means?
on the site of modern town of San Lorenzo
the first ceremonial center of the Olmecs was?
delivered a portion of their harvests for the maintenance of the elite classes and provided labor for construction projects
the Olmec common people...?
the colossal human heads
the most characteristic artistic creations of the Olmecs were?
the Olmecs and then abandoned
the Olmec ceremonial centers of San Lorenzo and La Venta were destroyed by?
DID trade: art fashioned from jade, basalt, or ceramics, and local products such as animal skins..jade and obisdian
the Olmecs traded extensively in all of the following items except?
all Mesoamerican societies used calendars derived ultimately from the?
the most important political center of the Mayan realm at its height was?
Which of the following devices did the ancient Maya build in order to trap silt carried by the numerous rivers passing through the Mesoamerican lowlands?
Chichen Itza
In the ninth century C.E., a loose Maya empire was constructed by the state of?
which of the following mathematical concepts, essential for positional notation and the manipulation of large numbers, was invented by Mayan mathematicians?
the Mayan calendar interwove a solar year of 365 days and a ceremonial calendar of _____ days
the maya believed that monumental change would occur whenever their ceremonial and solar calendars returned to their respective starting points at the same time. This event took place every _____ solar years
the Mayans
the most flexible and sophisticated system of writing found in the ancient Americas was created by?
a mayan creation myth
the Popol Vuh was?
maize and water
according to the Popol Vuh, the gods created the first successful version of humans out of..?
four books
how much written material survives form the Maya?
the city of Teotihuacan
the Pyramid of the Sun was located in?
the Pyramid of the Sun
the largest single building in Mesoamerica was..?
200,000 people
the population of Teotihuacan rose to?
spread through most of the territory occupied by modern Peru and vanished about 300 BCE and the extensive distribution of temples and carvings shows that they seized the imagination of agricultural peoples throughout the central Andean region
the Chavin cult...?
one of the earliest Andean states, which left a remarkable artistic legacy through its ceramics, was...?
Austronesian languages
Malayan, Indonesian, Filipino, Polynesian, and other Oceanic languages are derived from?
the Austronesian-speaking peoples became the first human settlers on this large island off the east African coast...?
they traded with each other
which statement correctly describes the relationship between the aboriginal peoples of Australia and New Guinea?
were the earliest Austronesian migrants to sail out into the blue water of the Pacific Ocean and establish human settlements in Pacific Islands
the Lapita peoples...?
Chiefly political societies
Austronesian peoples established what type of political societies in the lands they settled?
the victory over Lydia
the major early turning point in the rise of the Persian Empire was the..?
the leader of the Lydians who fell to Cyrus was?
in organizing their empire, Persian rulers relied heavily on techniques of administration from the?
Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Sasanid
which of the following lists of Persian empires is correct chronologically?
part of the larger Indo-European migrations and they lived in loose subjection to the Babylonian and Assyrian empires when they lived in central Asia
the Medes and Persians were originally?
the founder of the Achaemenid Empire was?
in 525 BCE the Persian emperor Cambyses captured?
the greatest of the Achaemenid emperors was?
a place where Cyrus ruled the Persian tribes in his mountain fortress
Pasargadae was?
35 million
the population of the Achaemenid Empire under Darius was?
the magnificent capital of the Persian Empire constructed by Darius was?
administrative and taxation districts governed by satraps
Satrapies were?
a new category of officials created by the rulers who traveled throughout the empire and conducted surprise audits and collected intelligence of the satraps
the Persian "eyes and ears of the king"?
not to make their conquered lands change their government laws, but to modify them as needed...less rebellions
the classical Persian governmental approach was ?
Darius picked up the idea of a standardized government-issued coinage from the?
which of the following empires normally displayed the greatest degree of toleration toward its subject peoples?
the Persian king who regularized tax levies and standardized laws was?
the Indus river
the easternmost point of Darius's empire was?
portray themselves not as conquerors, but as rulers/representatives
the Persian legal code was designed to ?
the Persian Royal Road??
the center of the Persian communications network was?
the greek historian Herodotus
who used the words, "neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of the appointed rounds," to describe the Persian courier service?
underground canals
the qanats were?
the Jews in the Achaemenid empire
for his decision to allow them to return to their capital city and rebuild their temple, Darius received high praise from these people. who were they?
the king who failed to follow the normal Persian governing policy of toleration was?
the decisive victory of Alexander of Macedon over the Persians was called the battle of?
were created when Alexander died and his chief generals carved his empire into three large realms which they divided among themselves
the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanid empires...?
Seleucid empire
the empire, compromising most of the old Achaemenid state, that was taken by a general of Alexander the Great was the?
the Seleucids were finally defeated in 83 BCE by the?
which Iranian state followed the Achaemenids and rivaled the Seleucids in greatness?
Mithradates I
the greatest Parthian ruler was?
a capital city of the Parthians on the Euphrates River near modern Baghdad
Ctesiphon was?
a ruler of the Sasanids and stabilized their western frontier and crated a series of buffer states between themselves and the Roman empire
Shapur I was?
Arab warriors
the Sasanids were defeated in 651 CE by?
Aryans in India
the social structure of the Medes and Persians was originally very similar to?
a slave named Gimillu who served the temple community in Uruk and his career reveals that slaves sometimes had administrative talents and took on tasks involving considerable responsibility, and slaves sometimes enjoyed relationships with powerful individuals who could protect them from enemies
Gimillu was?
a religion founded in Persia by Zarathustra..had a main deity Ahura Mazda and 6 lesser deites.
Zoroastrianism was?
Angra Mainyu
Zarathustra talked about the battle between the "wise lord" Ahura Mazda and the evil spirit?
the 6 lesser deities of Zoroastrianism
the Gathas were?
as a blessing that reflected the benevolent nature of Ahura Mazda
Zarathustra viewed the material world?
Zoroastrian teachings
the words "good words, good thoughts, good deeds" were used to sum up the view of morality of the?
was a historian sentenced to punishment by castration
Sima Qian was?
adopted Legalist principles and imposed centralized imperial rule on all of China
the Qin and Han dynasties?
the collection of Confucian sayings and teachings is known as the ?
fundamentally moral, ethical, and political in character
the philosophy of Confucius?
could not be solved by addressing abstruse philosophical questions
Confucius believed that political and social harmony?
"superior individuals"
the chinese concept of filial piety, which was central to the family structure, was best expressed by the word?
when discussing qualities that were essential to a good character, Confucius used which of the following terms to mean an attitude of kindness or a sense of humanity?
became the core texts of the traditional chinese education
through the efforts of Confucius, the literary works of the Zhou period?
the most influential post- Confucian philosopher, who served as the chief spokesman for Confucius's philosophy, was?
human nature were basically good
at the heart of Mencius's philosophy was the belief that?
the Chinese philosopher who proposed that only strong social discipline would bring society into order was?
the philosophy that criticized social activism and, instead, proposed a life reflection and introspection was?
a sage named Laozi
the traditional founder of Daoism is considered to be?
Chinese philosophers often spoke of the following term, which means "the way"?
the most important text of Daoism is the?
disengagement from the competitive exertions and active involvement in affairs of the world
the Daoist thinkers spoke of wuwei, which stood for?
what was the school of philosophical thought that returned order to china after the Period of Warring States?
what was the Chinese political philosophy that called for clear and strict laws?
imposing harsh penalties (legalist doctrine)
Shang Yang and Han Feizi hoped to control China's subjects by?
imposing harsh penalties , collective responsibility before the law
in an effort to bring about effective governmental control, the Legalists?
Shang Yang, who served as cheif minister to the duke of the Qin state in western China
the Book of Lord Shang is one of the most influential works of ?
the first ruler to unite all of China was?
according to the Legalist philosophies of the Qin, the foundations of a state's strength were armed forces and?
Qin Shihuangdi
the chinese emperor who was notorious for his hatred of Confucianism and for his burning of books was?
standardized Chinese script/ tomb of the first emperor (army statues)
Qin Shihuangdi's most important contribution to China was?
Qin Shihuangdi
the Chinese script was standardized during the reign of?
Qin Shihuangdi (first emperor)
fifteen thousand terra-cotta soldiers were unearthed in the tomb of?
Liu Bang
the founder of the Han dynasty was?
the reign of Wang Mang
the dividing line between the Former Han and the Later Han is marked by?
balance of centralization of Qin and decentralization of Zhou
the Han philosophy of rule was?
Han Wudi
the most powerful Han emperor, known for his administrative centralization and imperial expansion, was?
Han Wudi
the Chinese emperor who started the imperial university was?
by establishing an imperial university that prepared young men for government service
in 124 BCE, Han Wudi transformed China by?
Xiongnu, a nomadic people from the steppes of central asia who spoke a turkish language
which group of people was the greatest military threat to the Han dynasty?
the Xiongnu's most successful leader
Maodun was?
Admonitions for Women
which popular treatise emphasized humility, obedience, subservience, and devotion to their husbands as the virtues most appropriate for women?
social distinctions hardened
as the Han dynasty became more powerful and wealthy?
served as a regent to a two year old who inherited the Han imperial throne, and seized the throne
Wang Mang
socialist emperor
many of Wang Mang's reforms were so radical that he has been called the?
a Greek ambassador named Megasthenes
although only fragments remain, some of our best information about early Indian history come from the book, Indika, written by?
the diplomatic representative of the Seleucid emperor
Megasthenes was?
small kingdoms
during the time of the Aryans the Indian political landscape was characterized by?
Persians under the emperor Darius
the Indian political scene changed dramatically in 520 BCE when new administrative techniques were introduced after the invasion of the?
Alexander of Macedon
in 327 BCE India was thrown into political chaos by the invasion of?
Alexander of Macedon's invasion of this country in 327 BCE caused political chaos that eventually led to the unification of what country?
the kingdom that played a leading role in Indian unification, after the withdrawal of Alexander of Macedon, was?
Chandragupta Maurya
the first ruler to unify India was?
a systematic advisor who devised procedures for the governance of Chandragupta's realm
Kautalya was?
the harsh political philosophy of Chandragupta Maurya and Kautalya is recorded in the?
Chandragupta Maurya, Kautalya
the Arathashastra reflected the political philosophy of ?
the Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, fought his bloodiest battle against?
the capital of Ashoka's empire was?
the high point of Mauryan success came during the reign of?
the rock and pillar edicts were issued by?
debasing their currency- reducing the amount of precious metal in a coin without reducing its nominal value
one of the biggest financial problems of the later Mauryan period was the ruler's decision to?
did not crumble into anarchy. instead, local rulers formed a series of kingdoms that brought order to large regions
after the collapse of the Mauryan Empire, India?
after the collapse of the Mauryan dynasty, northwest India was controlled by the Bactrians, who spoke?
the Kushans in India reached their peak under?
Chandra Gupta
the year 320 BCE saw the creation of the Gupta dynasty by?
left local government and administration in the hands of their allies in the various regions of their empire
Politically, the Guptas...?
White Huns
the eventual collapse of the Gupta state was partially caused by an invasion by the?
monsoon winds
the success and timing of trade, through the indian Ocean basin, largely depended on?
commonly portrayed women as weak-willed and emotional creatures and exalted wives who devoted themselves to their husbands
the two great Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana?
child marriage
one of the most pronounced examples of patriarchal dominance in ancient India was?
creation of jati (subcastes) and guilds
one of the biggest transformations of the caste system during this period was?
essentially, much of the responsibility for maintaining social order in India during these years fell to?
brahmin priests
ancient India religion revolved around ritual sacrifices offered by whom?
gods were figments of the imagination, that brahmins were charlatans who enriched themselves by hoodwinking others, and that human beings came from dust and returned to dust like any other animal in the natural world
the Charvaka sect believed?
clearly reflected the increasingly materialistic character of Indian society and economy
the beliefs of the Charvakas?
was a great teacher of Jainism and made Jainist doctrines popular when he turned to Jainism
Vardhamma Mahavira?
Mahavria Vardhamana
the founder of Jainism was?
the religious group that carefully swept the ground before them as they walked to avoid harming any invisible insects was the?
the Jains adhered to the principle of nonviolence to other living things or their souls, which is expressed in the word?
the principle of nonviolence to other living things or their souls
ahimsa refers to?
didnt draw distinctions between social classes and castes
the greatest social contribution of the Jains was?
an escape of the cycle of incarnation and attainment of nirvana
the Buddha believed that salvation came from?
Four Noble Truths
the fundamental doctrine of Buddhism was known as the?
Theravada Buddhism is also known as?
the boddhisatya is associated with what religion?
Bhagavad Gita
the Indian work that deals with a dialogue between the warrior, Arjuna, and his charioteer, Krishna, is the?
castes imposed specific moral duties and responsibilities upon him
When Krishna tells Aruja, in the Bhagavad Gita, "having regards to your own duty, you ought not to falter, for there is nothing better for a kshatriya than a righteous battle," he is referring to what Hindu principle?
Bhagavad Gita
the line, "as a man, casting off old clothes, so the embodied self, casting off old bodies, goes to others and new ones," comes from the?
a Greek perspective on a campaign waged by a band of Greek warriors against the city of Troy in Anatolia
the Homeric epic the Illiad deals with?
the author of the Iliad was?
independent, autonomous city states
the political structure of the ancient Greeks?
the Mycenaeans received early, indirect influence from the Egyptians and Phoenicians through their contact with the?
lavish palaces on the island of Crete
the best example of Minoan culture can be seen in the remains at?
of the natural disasters that plagued the Minoans, the most devastating was the volcanic eruption in 1628 BCE on the island of?
Linear B
the Mycenaeans adapted the Minoan written language to their own needs and developed a syllabic script called?
Linear A
The Minoans wrote a script, not yet deciphered, that was known as?
a city state
the Greeks used the word polis to refer to?
the Spartans were constantly afraid of the prospect of an uprising by the serfs known as?
prowess, discipline, and military talent
distinction among the ancient Spartans came from?
free adult males
Athenian democracy was open to?
the leader who forged a compromise between Athen's social classes by allowing the aristocrats to keep their land while also providing representation for the common classes was?
which of the following words was used by the Greeks to refer to generals or politicians who, although often popular, gained power by irregular means?
Athens became the most sophisticated of the poleis, the Peloponnesian War
which of the following events occurred during the time of Pericles?
DID: spread greek language/tradition, quickened the tempo of social life, local clan leaders built small sates when Greek merchants brought wealth there
which of the following did NOT come about because of Greek colonization?
the decisive naval battle of the Persian war was fought at?
under whose leadership did Athens become the most sophisticated of the poleis?
the naval loss at Salamis was viewed by the Perisan king?
who won the Peloponnesian War?
in the years after the Persian War, the leader of the Delian League was?
Philip of Macedon
by 338 BCE, the Greeks had fallen to?
the most important port in the Hellenistic world was?
the easternmost point of Alexander's conquests was?
the largest part of Alexander's conquests, essentially the former Achaemenid empire, was taken over by?
which of the following people wrote that Alexander the Great possessed, "great personal beauty, invincible power of endurance, and a keen intellect"?
the Seleucid realm
of all the Hellenistic empires, Greek influence was greatest in?
the wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires was the _____ empire?
a colony on the Oxus river in ancient Bactria
Ai Khanum was?
in which polis did women have the most freedom?
a women homosexual poet
Sappho was?
fell under the authority of their fathers, husbands, and sons. spent most of their time in the family home, and were supervised and wore veils when they went outside
which of the following statements is true about women in the Greek world?
human beings and human affairs
Socrates believed that it was most important to understand?
which of the following did Socrates believe was more important than wealth or fame?
who said "the unexamined life is not worth living"?
the concept of Forms or Ideas is associated with?
in "The Republic", Plato proposed that the true rulers of society should be?
which Greek god was the grandson of the earth and sky gods?
originally a disciple of Plato, came to distrust the theory of Forms or Ideas, explored the nature of reality in subtle metaphysical works and devised rigorous rules of logic in an effort to construct powerful and compelling arguments
later christian scholastic philosophers referred to this man as "the master of those who know"?
women were the chief devotees of the Greek god of wine, who was named?
the dramatist Euripides
the author of the Bacchae was?
which of the Hellenistic philosophers viewed pleasure as the greatest good?
which of the Hellenistic philosophers considered all human beings to be members of a single, universal family?
he asserted his rights as a Roman citizen
Paul's case was transferred to Rome because?
According to legend, Rome was founded by?
During its early history, Rome was dominated by the?
in the early stages of the Roman republic, the patricians elected two?
in an effort to alleviate social tensions, this group was allowed to elect two and then later ten tribunes?
during times of crisis, the Romans would appoint an official with absolute power known as a?
the Roman policy toward conquered peoples was?
the Roman policy of toleration and respect for conquered peoples was most similar to the?
in the early period of Roman expansion, the principle power in the western Mediterranean was the?
During the Punic Wars, the Romans first fought the Carthaginians over the most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean. Where was it?
Punic Wars
Rome's monumental struggle with the Carthaginians was known as the?
the turning point in Roman history was their struggle, in the Punic Wars, with the?
a seige formation that troops formed by surrounding themselves with their shields to avoid defenders' missiles while approaching city walls (literally "the tortoise")
the testudo was?
enormous plantations
Latifundia were?
the tribune whose call for land reform led to his assassination in 132 BCE was?
a general who sided with social reformers who advocated redistribution of land
Gaius Marius?
the leader, supported by the Roman aristocrats, who led a slaughter of more than 10,000 of his political enemies was?
favored liberal policies and social reform
in regard to political philosophy, Julius Caesar?
DID: centralize military and political functions, confiscated property from conservatives and distributed it to his veterans/supporters, launched large-scale building projects, extended Roman citizenship to peoples in imperial provinces
after naming himself dictator in 46 BCE, Julius Caesar did all of the following except?
a naval battle at Actium in Greece
Octavian was able to restore order to the Roman world with his victory in 31 BCE at?
Mark Antony
Augustus was able to reunify the empire after defeating his main rivals, who were?
the last of the Ptolemaic rulers was?
a monarchy disguised as a republic
the government established by Augustus Caesar?
stimulated the development of local economies and states
the Roman conquest of Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain?
the period known as "pax romana" was started by?
pax romana (Roman peace)
the reign of Augustus inaugurated a period known as the?
"father of the family", the eldest male ruling the household
the phrase "pater familias" refers to?
by the second centruy CE, how much of the total population of the Roman Empire was represented by slaves?
assembled an army of 70,000 rebellious slaves
in 73 BCE, Spartacus?
Zeus was to Jupiter as Ares was to?
the hearth
Vesta was the Roman goddess of?
the Roman thinker Marcus Tullius Cicero was best associated with the Hellenistic school of thought?
the most prominent school of moral philosophy in Rome was?
a god closely identified with the sun and light in Zoroastrian mythology
Mithras was?
Jews in Palestine
from 66 to 70 CE, the Romans fought a bloody war with the?
a sect of the Jews who wrote the Dead Sea scrolls
the Essences were?
the anointed one
Jesus of Nazareth's followers called him, "Christ," which meant?
the phrase "the kingdom of God is at hand" is associated with
Paul of Tarsus
the leading figure in the expansion of Christianity beyond Judaism was ?
an envoy sent by Han Wudi to a mission to tlands west of China
Zhang Qian was?
nomadic Xiongnu
Zhang Qian's mission was to line up allies for Han China against the?
silk roads
the information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and lay the foundations for the?
the most important port on the Red Sea, constructed by the Ptolemies, was?
the easternmost point of the silk roads was the Han capital of?
monsoon winds
a key element in establishing trade across the Indian Ocean was?
on the east African coast
the trading port of Rhapta was located?
which of the following deserts was one of the most dangerous spots along the silk roads? it's name means "he who enters does not come back out"?
in the west, the silk roads terminated in the Turkish port of?
Chang'an, Anticoch/ Tyre
the land route of the silk roads ran from the Han capital of ________ to the Mediterranean port of ______ ?
in the ancient world, the main producer of silk was?
the silk roads
Buddhism was spread to China by?
the fact that by the 1st century CE, southeast Asian kings called themselves rajas shows how they were influenced by the?
the expanding influence of India was shown by the fact that Southeast Asian kings called themselves?
Gregory the Wonderworker
Christianity was carried to Anatolia during the 3rd century CE by?
followers of the Greek theologian Nestorius, who emphasized the human as opposed to the divine nature of Jesus
the Nestorians were?
the prophet who promoted a syncretic blend of Zoroastrian, Christian, and Buddhist into a religious faith that would serve the needs of a cosmopolitan world was?
the elect
Devout Manichaeans, who abstained from marriage and sexual relations and who devoted their lives to prayer and fasting, were called the?
less zealous Manichaeans who led more conventional lives and provided food and gifts to the elect
the "hearers" were?
Zoroastrian leaders
the prophet Mani died in chains as a prisoner of the Sasanid emperor under the urging of the?
Marcus Aurelius
in 180 CE, smallpox claimed the life of the Roman emperor?
a quarter to a third
by around the year 600 CE, the ravages of epidemic diseased had caused both the Mediterranean and Chinese populations to fall by?
St. Cyprian
which of the following men recorded the suffering of Christians caused by epidemic diseases in his "On Morality"?
Yellow Turban uprising
in the year 184 CE, the peasant discontent in China led to an uprising known as the?
the generals divided the empire into 3 large kingdoms
with the collapse in political order after the fall of the Han empire...?
when people adapted to chinese culture and the environment
the term "sinicization" refers to?
the claimants to the imperial thrown, most were generals who seized power, held it brifely, and then lost it when they were displaced by rivals or their own troops
the "barracks emperors" were?
the Roman Empire was divided into two parts by?
four co-rulers of the Roman Empire during the late 3rd century CE
the tetrarchs were?
WAS: defeated most of his enemies, ordered the construction of a new capital city, accepted Christianity in Rome
which of the following was not accomplished by Constantine?
after 340 CE, the capital of the Roman world became?
Chaos threatened the Roman Empire in the mid-fifth century CE, when Germanic tribes poured into the empire for protection from?
in 410 CE, Roman was sacked by the?
the leader of the Visigoths who sacked Rome in 410 CE was?
Romulus Augustulus
in 476 CE, the Germanic leader Odovacer brought an end to the western half of the Roman Empire when he overthrew?
the Germans
in 476 CE, Rome finally fell to?
eastern half of the empire
after the collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire, imperial authority survived for another thousand years in the?
Christians were allowed to openly practice their religion when the emperor Constantine issued the Edict of..?
in 380 CE, Christianity was proclaimed the official religion of the Roman Empire by the emperor?
St. Augustine
Christian thought was linked to Platonic philosophy through the work of?
St. Augustine made Christian thought more appealing to the educated classes by harmonizing it with _____ thought?
as the only sources of established and recognized authority, the popes and bishops organized governments and defenses for their communities as Roman imperial authority crumbled
in the end, popes won supreme control of the church because?
in the structure of the early Christian church, who presided of the dioceses?
took up the difficult and contentious issue of Jesus' nature
in 325 CE, the Council of Nicaea?
Nicaea and Chalcedon
that Jesus possessed both human and divine natures was a decision made by the Council of?