History 1152 midterm review
Terms in this set (67)
Second Industrial Revolution (mid-to-late
Rapid increase in the production of technology and ideas for new inventions.
Pacific Railroads Act (1862)
promoted the construction of the "transcontinental railroad" with government help
First Transcontinental Railroad (1865 -
Created by the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroad Companies from California to Nebraska. About 1,900 miles long. Meeting point in Utah
Bessemer Process (1855)
A process created by Henry Bessemer and perfected by William Kelly which uses oxidation to remove impurities from pig iron and also mass produces steel
Thomas Edison (1847 - 1931)
An inventor that created the light bulb, phonograph , and the carbon microphone
Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1919)
Created Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company, became very rich, sold his company to J.P. Morgan and devoted his life to philanthropy.
John D. Rockefeller (1839 - 1937)
Came from Wealth unlike Carnegie and founded the Standard Oil Company of Cleveland, Ohio, became one of the world's wealthiest men and a major philanthropist.
Henry Ford (1863 - 1947)
Developed the Assembly line technique of mass production and the founder of the Ford Motor Company.
Gospel of Wealth (turn of the century)
Andrew Carnegie's article that called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society.
Social Darwinism (turn of the century)
Idea that related the biological concept of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology and politics. Argued that the strong should see their wealth and power increase while the weak should see their wealth and power decrease.
Ellis Island (1892 - 1954)
Gateway for millions of immigrants to the United States. The nation's busiest immigrant inspection station from 1892 until 1954
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Restricted immigration of Chinese laborers to the United States
Henry George (1839 - 1897)
proposed single tax. a tax on land before improvement and the abolishment of all other taxes
Knights of Labor (created in 1869)
labor union advocating for 8 hour workdays, abolition of child labor, equal pay for equal work, and political reforms including the graduated income tax. allowed anybody to join.
American Federation of Labor (created in
Led by Samuel Gompers, allowed only skilled workers, no racial minorities, or women.
Homestead Strike (1892)
steel mill workers went on strike giving Carnegie a bad rep
Dawes Act (1887)
authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians
"Redeemers" (late 19th century)
were the southern wing of Bourbon Democrats—the conservative, pro-business wing of the Democratic Party during Reconstruction.
Booker T. Washington (1856 - 1915)
his Atlanta compromise called for avoiding confrontation over segregation and instead putting more reliance on long-term educational and economic advancement in the black community. self-help
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Homer Plessy sat in the "White" car of the East Louisiana Railroad and was jailed for it the court ruled against him and said it was constitutional
Sharecropping (post-Civil War to 1930s)
system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
Farmers' Alliances (created in 1876)
This organization attempted to solve the mounting financial problems of southern farmers by forming cooperative purchasing and marketing enterprises
"White Caps" (1880s and 1890s)
Mexican strike group
Jesse James (1847 - 1882)
outlaw who highjacked trains
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
This act attempted to prevent the artificial raising of prices by restriction of trade or supply
Populist Party (1890s)
farmers in the South and Midwest that were against the Democratic and Republican Parties for ignoring their interests and difficulties.
Panic of 1893
serious economic depression marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures.
Coxey's "Army" (1894)
protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey
William Jennings Bryan (1860 - 1925)
strong advocate of popular democracy. he demanded "Free Silver" because it undermined the evil "Money Power" and put more cash in the hands of honest people was president
"White Man's Burden" (turn of the century)
the idea that it was the white man's job to modernize other countries and educate them
Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840 - 1914)
the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century. concept of "sea power" was based on the idea that countries with greater naval power will have greater worldwide impact
Yellow Press (1890s)
journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers
USS Maine (1898)
Ship that exploded suddenly killing nearly three quarters of the crew
Rough Riders (1898)
volunteer cavalry who fought the battle of San Juan Hill and won on foot
Treaty of Paris (1898)
agreement made in 1898 that resulted in the Spanish Empire's surrendering control of Cuba and ceding Puerto Rico, parts of the Spanish West Indies, the island of Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.
Platt Amendment (1901)
established the terms under which the United States would end its military occupation of Cuba and "leave the government and control of the island of Cuba to its people."
Roosevelt Corollary (1904)
Stated that the United States would intervene as a last resort to ensure that other nations in the Western Hemisphere fulfilled their obligations to international creditors, and did not violate the rights of the United States or invite "foreign aggression to the detriment of the entire body of American nations."
Muckrakers (early 20th century)
were members of the press that investigated corruption in order to expose problems to the American people
Hull House (created in 1889)
a settlement house which opened its doors to european immigrants created by Jane Addams and Ellen Starr
Margaret Sanger (1879 - 1966)
Advocate of Birth Control. Created an earlier version of Planned Parenthood
W.E.B. Du Bois (1868 - 1963)
First African American to earn a PhD from Harvard. Co-founder of Niagara Movement. Co-founder of NAAC. Editor of "The Crisis"
Ida B. Wells (1862 - 1931)
One woman anti-lynching campaign. Women's voting rights movement. Created Black women's club. Sued Memphis and Charleston railroad company because they didn't let her sit in a women's railroad car
Industrial Workers of the World (created in
Tried to move labor movement back to its socialist origins
"Square Deal" (1901 - 1909)
gov't played role of facilitator when it comes to conflict
Underwood Tariff (1913)
lowered tax rates
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
Created 12 district Federal Reserve Banks, each able to issue new currency and loan member banks funds at the prime interest rate, as established by the Federal Reserve Board.
sunk in 1915 by German U-boat
Zimmermann Note (1917)
secret message from Germany to Mexico to influence Mexico to become an ally to Germany against US
Creel Committee (1917 - 1919)
Committee on Public Information. to promote the war domestically while publicizing American war aims abroad
Espionage Act (1917)
law mandating severe prison penalties for anyone encouraging disloyalty
Sedition Act (1918)
passes on the same penalties to those expressing a dangerous or disloyal opinion in writing
Fourteen Points (1918 - 1919)
speech-blueprints for peace talks
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
punished Germany: stripped territory, stripped colonies, expensive reparations, navy and marine reduced, 100,000 army size limit.
Great Migration (1916 - 1930)
migration of African Americans from the south to the north
Chicago Race Riot (1919)
Black v. Whites
Red Scare (1919 - 1920s)
Palmer Raids (1920)
a series of raids in late 1919 and early 1920 by the United States Department of Justice intended to capture, arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States.
Marcus Garvey (1887 - 1940)
Universal Negro Improvement Association "Back to America" Movement
"Harlem Renaissance" (1920s)
"New Negro Movement"
"Lost Generation" (1920s)
all people who died in WW1 and survivors
Scopes Trial (1925)
John T. Scopes arrested for teaching Darwinism
Emergency Quota Act (1921)
Immigration Act of 1924
Limited the number of immigrants allowed entry into the United States through a national origins quota.
Teapot Dome Scandal (1921 - 1924)
a bribery incident that took place in the United States that had leased Navy petroleum reserves to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding
1. How did reformers of the early twentieth century address the problems created by
industrialization? What were those problems? How did the proposed solutions define the
Progressive Era? Discuss specific grassroots organizations as well as presidential policies.
Some reformers of the early twentieth century focused on legislative solutions to social problems; others stressed direct assistance to the laboring poor in their neighborhoods or organized charity. These problems included chronic urban poverty, unsafe working conditions, and worrisome child labor in mills, mines, and factories. Different groups advocated against different problems like the National Child Labor Committee who were against child labor. They do different things to make aan impression on the public hence making an impression on the higher-ups.
2. Why did the United States enter the First World War? What kind of role did the country play
in the war? What were President Wilson's hopes for the postwar world when he attended the
peace conference in France? What were his obstacles?
The US entered the First World War because Germans fired at and sank five U.S. merchant vessels enraging President Wilson who then announced our entrance into the war. Once maintaining a neutral stance in the war became tough, we decided to declare war. a war that was once between European countries then transformed into a war involving the political struggle of democratic ideals against autocratic tyranny. the US needed to build up it's army quickly in order to mobilize on Germany. After the war Wilson hoped to mkae the world safe for democracy. He wanted to make the League of Nations. However, Wilson had to face Republican opposition.
3. Why were the 1920s such a period of contradictions? What seemed to be modern about the
decade? What seemed to be reactionary? Discuss intellectual life, society, politics, and the
economics of a country whose prosperity came to a crashing halt by 1929.
The 1920's were where America stood at a crossroads between innovation and tradition. Where unmatched prosperity and cultural advancement was accompanied by intense social unrest and reaction. Where the same decade that bore witness to urbanism and modernism also introduced the Ku Klux Klan. the most modern and vivid impressions include flappers, dance halls, movie palaces and radio empires. with the prosperous growth of culture and the spike in population and modernized innovations came irresponsibility. Americans became flippant with their money therefore causing an economic crash to happen once again.