• Reinforcement management: Rewarding oneself or being
rewarded by others for making changes: contingency
contracts, overt and covert reinforcement, self-reward.
• Helping relationships: Being open and trusting about
problems with someone who cares: therapeutic alliance,
social support, self-help groups.
• Counter conditioning: Substituting alternatives for
problem behaviors: relaxation, desensitization, assertion,
• Stimulus control: Avoiding or countering stimuli that elicit
problem behaviors: restructuring one's environment (e.g.,
removing alcohol or fattening foods), avoiding high risk
cues, fading techniques.
• Individual: biological & psychological dispositions, attitudes, values, knowledge, skills, problem behaviors
• Peer: norms, activities, attachment
• Family: function, management, bonding, abuse/violence
• School: bonding, climate, policy, performance
• Community: bonding, norms, resources, poverty level, crime, awareness/mobilization
• Society/environmental (sometimes): norms, policy/sanctions