Aniamal Welfare Act- legislation that sets standards for the use of animals in labs, covers all warm-blooded animals with the exception of birds, rats, and mice that bred for use in research, and farm animals used in agricultural research.
USDA- the people who enforce the regulations. examine quantity of air exchanges, control of room temperatures levels, sanitation standards, housing conditions, and other factors.
PHS- has additional regulations that cover all vertebrates. institutions submits reports.
IACUC- Instiutional Animal Care and Use Committe. A group of individuals who review any proposed use of vertebrate animals at a US institution. Investigators submit proposals. Commitee includes scientists, non scientists, a lab animal veterinarian, and a nonaffiliate member.. inspects animal facilities twice a year. can terminate or suspend programs that are noncompliant.
IRB-Institutional review board. its a committee of 5 members at each instituion by federal mandate and they are responsible for reviewing the research conducted with human participants. members are qualified but not involved in research.
Belmont Report- it provides the foundation of current ethical guidelines and appears on the National Institutes of Health, OHRP. 3 principles are respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.
Respect for persons means that the person is fully informed of the risks and benefits of the research before participation. Not forced, and free to withdraw.
Beneficence is that participant should be protected from harm. max benefits and minimize risks.
Justice- choose population that benefit most from research. do not fall to the pressure. conduct strongest, smartest, best designed experiment possible.
Three R's- Refine, reduce and replace. Refine procedures, to make sure animals are treated as humanely as possible. Reduce the number animals used to the minimum necessary to achieve good statiscal results. Replace animals with computer simulations or animals with invertebrates.