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A circumstance that causes a sudden acute episode of a chronic disease to occur:
Which of the following would be the most likely cause of an iatrogenic disease?
An unwanted effect of a prescribed drug.
A tissue in which the cells vary in size and shape and show increased mitotic figures would be called:
The best definition of the term prognosis is:
The predicted outcome or likelihood of recovery from a specific disease.
Patients taking glucocorticoids for long periods of time are likely to develop all of the following except:
Relief of fever.
Which of the following statements applies to fever?
It results from release of pyrogens into the circulation.
Healing of large areas of skin loss (including dermis and epidermis) would best take place through:
Covering area with biosynthetic skin substitute.
Which of the following drugs relieves fever and pain, but is not an anti-inflammatory agent?
Mechanisms to bring an elevated body temperature down to the normal lever include:
General cutaneous vasodilation.
The warmth and redness related to the inflammatory response results from:
Increased blood flow into the area.
A major source of infection in burn areas is:
Microbes surviving in the hair follicles in the burn area.
Edema or tissue swelling associated with inflammation results directly from:
Increased fluid and protein in the interstitial compartment.
What is the correct order of the following evens in the inflammatory response immediately after tissue injury?
The process of phagocytosis involves the:
Ingestion of foreign material or cell debris by leukocytes.
What does seroconversion mean in relation to HIV and AIDS.
Antibodies for HIV have been identified in the blood.
Which cells are required to process and present antigens from foreign material as the intitial step in the immune response?
Anaphaylaxis is considered a critical situation because:
Bronchoconstriction and systemic vasodilation develop rapidly.
Distinguishing clinical features of a systemic lupus erythematosus include:
Inflammation in multiple organs.
A patient experienced an episode of influenza 6 months ago. A recent exposure to a mutated form of the same virus would result in:
A primary immune response.
When an allergen binds with IgE antibodies on mast cells, resulting in release of chemical mediators, this reaction is called:
type I hypersensitivity
The primary pathological effect of influenza virus is:
Inflammation and necrosis of the upper respiratory epithelium.
When do clinical signs of infection appear?
When the microbial colony is large enough to damage the host.
Opportunistic infection may develop when:
A member of resident flora migrates and colonizes a new location in the body.
A broad-spectrum bactericidal agent would be expected to:
Destroy many gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Secondary infection may occur with administration of antibacterial drugs because the:
Balance of species in the resident flora is upset.
The principle of Universal Precautions is based on:
Assuming that all body fluids from all individuals are possible sources of infection.
The incubation period refers to the time period between:
Entry of the pathogen into the body and the first signs of infectious disease.
The most critical adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy include:
Thrombocytopenia and leukopenia.
Anti-angiogenesis drugs act on malignant tumor by:
Reduce blood flow and nutrient supply to tumor cells.
Glucocorticoids are often prescribed during a course of chemotherapy and radiation because:
Inflammation around the tumor may be reduced.
The development of neutropenia during chemotherapy for cancer means:
The patient is at high risk for infection.
What type of cells tend to be damaged the most during chemotherapy and radiation treatments?
What is the grading of newly diagnosed malignant tumors based on?
Degree of differentiation of the cells.
Why does ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis?
Specific signs rarely appear until after secondary tumors develop.
One reason for staging a malignant tumor at the time of diagnosis is to:
Determine the best treatment and the prognosis.
A warning sign of possible cancer would be any of the following except:
Sudden development of fever, nausea, and diarrhea.
What might fluid and electrolyte deficits in a patient with anorexia nervosa cause?
Acne vulgaris can best be described as an infection involving the:
Sebaceous glands and hair follicles.
What are common local signs of osteomyelitis?
A red, swollen area with pain that increases with movement.
Predisposing factors to osteoporosis in older women include all of the following except:
Decreased parathyroid hormone.
What is a major factor leading to increased occurrence of cancer in the elderly?
Cumulative exposure to carcinogens.
Vision in the elderly may be impaired when the lens of the eye becomes larger and less elastic, resulting in:
Severe, prolonged stress may cause acute renal failure or stress ulcers to develop due to:
Prolonged vasoconstriction and ischemia.
During the stress response, glucocorticoids assist in:
Increasing blood glucose levels and stabilizing blood pressure.
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