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third-person effect

the common attitude that others are influenced by media messages but we are not


a set of values and shared beliefs

cultural hegemony

Conan O'brian promoting president of Finland is an example of...


anything that interferes with or alters the message is considered...

burning tank theory

theory that claims television will always emphasize that which is most readily presented visually


control the flow of media messages, ideas, and information; decide which messages reach the public

agenda setting

story order in news is an example of...

telecommunications act of 1996

obliterated ownership restrictions

Time Warner

owns Warner Bros. film studios,
Time, People, and Sports Illustrated,
formerly owned AOL


Paramount Film and TV
MTV and several other cable networks
Several radio networks and stations

Sumner Redstone

owner of Viacom/CBS


Universal Film and Television
several other tv networks and stations
Comcast wants to buy this company


ABC Television
amusement parks
the Muppets
Marvel comics

News Corp

20th Century Fox Films
Fox broadcast and cable TV stations
New York Post and more than 175 newspapers
The Wall Street Journal

Rupert Murdoch

owns News Corp

Payne Fund Studies 1929

_________ studied the impact of movies on children's behavior in _____

magic bullet theory

theory that states media messages move through society like a bullet


type of research that studies direct, immediate causes and effects (micro)


type of research that examines larger cultural effects (macro)

paul lazarsfeld

considered the father of social science research, est. limited effects theories

dependency theory

idea that media's power is a function of audience members' dependency on the media and their content

uses and gratifications

idea that media don't do things to people; people do things with media

grand theory

a theory designed to describe and explain all aspects of a given phenomenon (i.e. mass society theory)

magic bullet theory

idea from mass society theory that media are a powerful "killing force" that directly penetrates a person's system

attitude change theory

theory that explains how people's attitudes are formed, shaped, and changed and how those attitudes influence behavior

cultivation analysis

idea that people's ideas of themselves, their world, and their place in it are shaped and maintained primarily through television

mass society theory

idea that the media are corrupting influences that undermine the social order and that "average" people are defenseless against their influence

two-step flow theory

idea that media's influence on people's behavior is limited by opinion leaders (lazarsfeld)

limited effects theory

idea that media's influence is limited by people's individual differences, social categories, and personal relationships

marshall mcluhan

said "the medium is the message"

johannes gutenberg 1456

the printing press was invented by _____ _____ in ____

still photograph 1839

the ______ _______ was invented by L. Daguerre and N. Niepce in ____

samuel morse 1844

_____ ______ invented the telegraph in ____

alexander graham bell 1876

the telephone was invented by ________ ______ ____ in ____

thomas edison 1877

the phonograph was invented by _____ _____ in ____

harry potter

_____ ______ sales now exceed 350 million copies worldwide and is translated into 63 languages

the da vinci code

___ __ _____ ____ by dan brown sold more than 60 million copies and is translated into 44 languages

oprah winfrey

huge media entrepreneur who promotes books very successfully, incredible amount of power over book buying


in 1450, there were ______ books in europe

10 to 12 million

in 1500, there were _________ books in europe

uncle tom's cabin 1851

____ _____ _____, written by harriet beecher stowe in ____, changed the public's opinion about slavery and helped spark the civil war


online e-book stores appeared in ____

public domain

any book published before 1923 is in the ______ ______ in the U.S.


books can be released into the public domain by the owners of their __________

advantages of e-books

portability, search, and possible hyperlinking are ________ __ _______

disadvantages of e-books

format confusion, technological barriers, digital rights management, and fragility are __________ __ _______

apple ipad

the _____ _____ was introduced in march 2010 and sold 3 million in the first 80 days

publick occurences

the first newspaper was called

john peter zenger

early publisher who published the new york weekly, trial for libel

the federalist papers

framework for the american government

the penny press

cheap newsprint, form of mass media, paper ready to the masses

benjamin harris boston 1690

publick occurences was published by _____ _____ in ______ (city) in ____ (year)

two-step flow theory

oprah influencing book choices is an example of the ....

the new york sun

first major metropolitan daily

john jay james madison alexander hamilton

_______ _____, _______ ________ and ________ _______ were the authors of the federalist papers


this invention established inverted pyramid style reporting because the most important messages was sent first (medium shaped the message)

benjamin day 1833

________ _____ published the New York Sun in ____ (year)

news hole

balancing of advertising and copy

wire services

New York Associated Press (1848), Associated Press (1900), and Reuters (1851) are examples of...

pulitzer prize

awarded every april since 1917

nellie bly

around the world in 72 days, stunt journalism, investigative journalism

william randolph hearst

newspaper man who was suspected for causing the explosion that started the spanish american war


name of the artist that hearst sent to draw the war

citizen kane 1941

orson wells' movie, _______ _____ was about hearst and was released in ______

meaning-making perspective

idea that active audience members use media content to create meaning, and meaningful experiences, for themselves

symbolic interactions

idea that people give meaning to symbols and then those symbols control people's behaviors in their presence

poor richard's almanack

written by benjamin franklin in 1732, sold 10,000 copies anually; contained short stories, poetry, weather predictions, and other facts and figures useful to a population

dominant (or mainstream) culture

the culture that seems to hold sway with the large majority of people, which is normative

cultural imperialism

the invasion of an indigenous people's culture by powerful foreign countries through mass media


increasing the amount of advertising and mixing commercial and noncommercial media content


payment made by recording companies to DJs to air their records

ritual perspective

views media not as a means of transmitting "messages in space" but as central to "the maintenance of society in time"

transmissional perspective

sees media as senders of information for the purpose of control... media either have effects on our behavior or they do not

neo-marxist theory

theory that people are oppressed by those who control the culture, the superstructure, as opposed to the base

critical cultural theory

the idea that media operate primarily to justify and support the status quo at the expense of ordinary people

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