Integrated Cardiopulmonary pharmacology Ch 8
Bruce Colbert Third Edition
Terms in this set (37)
the application of a chemical agent that has specific toxic affects on disease producing organisms in a living animal.
Objective findings that show there may be an infection present
Hypoxemia, fever, elevated WBC, change on x-ray, dry or productive cough
Disease causing microorganisms
antibiotic therapy will be initiated based on available data about the most likely cause of an infection in a given location.
Does not need oxygen to survive
broad spectrum drugs
antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of microorganisms
Ways drugs can develop resistance
drug can be destroyed by bacterial agent, organisms develop alterations in the proteins that are binding sites for antibiotics (prevents attachment), when people take antibiotics that are not clinically indicated,
A microbiological response means
the microorganism has been eliminated
inhibit the replication of microorganisms and prevent growth of the organism without killing them
drugs actively kill bacteria
examples of Bactericidal drugs
Penicillins, Cephalosporins, vancomycin
examples of bacteriostatic drugs
Examples of broad spectrum drugs
Tetracyclines, Ampicillin, Cephalosporins
Examples of Narrow spectrum drugs
penicillins, Erythromycin, vancomycin
Act via inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis.
Down fall to penicillins
10% of patients report and allergy, although most can still safely use the drug
Similar to penicillin, but have longer half life
Only currently available antimicrobial in the new synthetic drug class call monobactams
4 Carbapenems currently available in the US
Imipenem (Primaxin), meropenem (Merrem), ertapenem (Invanz), doripenem (Doribax)
Broad spectrum and are active against many organisms that are resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins, and amino glycosides,
Bactericidal, block an enzyme responsible for DNA growth
used in serious incations for Gram - coverage. Can be used with another drug to fight gram + organisms
Examples of Aminoglycosides
Amikacin (Amikin), Gentamicin (Garamycin), Tobramycin (Nebcin)
Commony used for CF patients who are cronically infected with Pseudomonas
Bactericidal glycoprotein antibiotic. Binds to cell wall of reproducing microorganisms and inhibits mucupeptide formation.
Indicated for serious life-threatening infections caused by Gam + cocci
Vancomycin is frequently reserved for what type of infection
Vanco is monitored by..
serum blood levels
Can caused flushed skin or "red man syndrome"
Protein synthesis inhibitors include
macrolides and tetracyclines
Macrolides are commonly used to treta what
Erthromycin (E-mycin), Clarithomycin (Biaxin), Azithromycin (Zithromax), Telithromycin (ketek)
Relitively broad spectrum of activity gram + and gram - aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as mycoplasma ect
Doxycyline (Vibramycin), minocycline (Minocin), tirecline (Tygacil)
Only oxazolidinone that is clinically available in the US
Synthetic agents with a novel mechanism of action of inhibiting the bacterial translation process
Major probmels associtated with oxazolidinones
anemia,leukopenia, pancytopenia, thromnocytopenia. Blood counts are needed to monitor.
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