Excelsior U.S. History Unit 2 (Ch. 6)

Edwin L. Drake
The first person to successful extract oil from the ground. He used a steam engine and it started an oil boom which spread across the US.
Bessemer process
The process of injecting air into molten iron to remove carbon and other impurities and turn it into steel. This process was used to produce more than 90% of the nation's steel by 1880. This innovation helped in creating the thousands of miles of railroad tracks as well as new construction like bridges and skyscrapers.
Thomas Alva Edison
Established the world's first research laboratory where he perfected the incandescent light bulb as well as an entire system for producing and distributing electrical power.
Christopher Sholes
Completely changed the world of work with his invention of the typewriter in 1867.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone in 1876 which helped lead the nation into the age of industrialization.
Transcontinental railroad
When the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads met in 1869 in Utah, the first rail system to travel the entire country was completed.
George M. Pullman
Started his own town in Illinois to manufacture railroad cars and sleeper cars in 1880. The town was actually built to house the workers of the factory and was named after its owner.
Credit Mobilier
Corruption in America is a long-held tradition and in 1864, the stockholders of Union Pacific railroad company pocketed profits of $23 million and even paid off Congressmen.
Munn vs. Illinois
A fight of the railroads against the local farmers (Grangers) who had taken steps to regulate the laws surrounding railroads. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Granger laws and established an important principle- the federal government's right to regulate private industry to serve the public interest.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the right of the federal government to supervise railroad activities and established a five-member Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to lower railroad rates.
Andrew Carnegie
One of the first industrial moguls to make his own fortune in a rags to riches story and used innovative management practices along with vertical and horizontal integration to produce by far the largest portion of the nation's steel.
Vertical and Horizontal Integration
Carnegie's process of buying out his competing steel producers along with all of his suppliers. Carnegie also would try to make better products more cheaply in order to undersell his competition.
Social Darwinism
The theory that Herbert Spencer created utilizing Charles Darwin's theory to explain the evolution of human society and to justify the doctrine of laissez faire (a French term meaning "allow to do"), particularly regarding governmental regulation.
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company and took a different approach to mergers: they joined with competing companies in trust agreements. He used a trust to gain total control of the oil industry in America.
Sherman Antitrust Act
This legislation made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries. This legislation came about because of the issues raised by monopolists and other industrialists who owned vast majorities of industry and held great power in America. Some have even speculated that they held more power than the politicians of the age.
Samuel Gompers
He led the Cigar Maker's International Union to join with other craft unions and became president of the AFL.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Focused on collective bargaining to reach written agreements on wages, hours and working conditions. They also used strikes as a major tactic.
Eugene V. Debs
Formed the American Railway Union (ARU) with skilled and unskilled workers and won a strike for higher wages.
Industrial Workers of the World
Nicknamed the Wobblies and included miners, lumberers, and cannery and dock workers, welcomed African-Americans and gave dignity and a sense of solidarity to unskilled workers.
Mary Harris Jones
The most prominent organizer in the women's labor movement to demand better working conditions, equal pay for equal work, and an end to child labor.