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facial feedback hypothesis: pencil in mouth
people with a pencil in teeth were happier then people with pencil in between lips
Facial feedback hypothesis: hand in water
people put hand is ice water and was asked how painful it was, half the people that weren't allowed to show emotion were in less pain and able to keep hand in water longer
implicit personality theories
good the hold general rules that certain traits are associated, it allows us to fill in the planks and make quick impressions
a person with a positive trait is assumed to have other positive traits and as we learn new information we interpret it in the most positive way
Kelley's Covariation Theory
when making attributions we look at three types of information:
consensus, distinctiveness, consistency
Kelley's Covariation Theory: High in all three factors?
something to do with an external attribution
Kelley's Covariation Theory: Low consensus & distinctiveness, high consistency
something to do with an internal attribution
Kelley's Covariation Theory: Low consensus & consistency, high distinctiveness
something to do with that particular situation
we tend to attribute our own behaviors to external, situational factors
we tend to attribute others' behaviors to internal factors
people tend to make internal attributions for positive outcomes and negative outcomes on eternal causes
Illusion of control
we overestimate our control over events, and underestimate the role of chance or uncontrollable factors
-people don't like randomness
-things happen to certain people because of who they are
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