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Two types of nonverbal communication

kinesics and proxemics


body language, facial expressions
movement = kinetic


distance, eye contact
proximate = distance


tone, pitch, volume of speech

Three ways of communication

verbal, nonverbal and paralinguistics

6 universal emotional expressions

happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, disgust

facial feedback hypothesis

physical facial emotional displays lead to emotion being felt

facial feedback hypothesis: pencil in mouth

people with a pencil in teeth were happier then people with pencil in between lips

Facial feedback hypothesis: hand in water

people put hand is ice water and was asked how painful it was, half the people that weren't allowed to show emotion were in less pain and able to keep hand in water longer

perseverance bias

first impressions tend to stick, een when wrong
primacy = first impression

implicit personality theories

good the hold general rules that certain traits are associated, it allows us to fill in the planks and make quick impressions

halo effect

a person with a positive trait is assumed to have other positive traits and as we learn new information we interpret it in the most positive way


how people explain the causes of behavior

Father of attributions?

Fritz Heider

2 types of attributions

internal attributions (personal)
external attributions (situational)

Kelley's Covariation Theory

when making attributions we look at three types of information:
consensus, distinctiveness, consistency

Kelley's Covariation theory: consensus

do other people react the same way in this situation?

Kelley's Covariation theory: distinctiveness

does the person act the same way in other situations?

Kelley's Covariation Theory: consistency

does the person do the same thing on other occasions

Kelley's Covariation Theory: High in all three factors?

something to do with an external attribution

Kelley's Covariation Theory: Low consensus & distinctiveness, high consistency

something to do with an internal attribution

Kelley's Covariation Theory: Low consensus & consistency, high distinctiveness

something to do with that particular situation

fundamental attribution error

ignore situational overestimate internal influences

actor-observer differences

we tend to attribute our own behaviors to external, situational factors
we tend to attribute others' behaviors to internal factors

self-serving bias

people tend to make internal attributions for positive outcomes and negative outcomes on eternal causes

why we use self-serving bias?

protection of self esteem

Illusion of control

we overestimate our control over events, and underestimate the role of chance or uncontrollable factors
-people don't like randomness
-things happen to certain people because of who they are

the spotlight effect

overestimate the extent to which our appearances and actions are noticed by other people "bad hair days"

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