Alphonse Bertillon
The first systematic attempt at personal indentification was devised and introuduced by
A system of identification relying on precise body measurements
Sir Edward Richard Henry
The fingerprint classification system used in most english speaking countries was devised by...
The first systematic and offical use of fingerprints for personal identification in the United States was adopted by the new York City Civil Service Commission
is not
The individuality of a fingerprint (is, is not) determined by its pattern
A point-by-point comparison of a fingerprints ____ must be demostrated in order to prove identity.
_____ are a reproduction of friction skin ridges
dermal papillae
The form and pattern of skin ridges are determined by the (epidermis, dermal papillae)
dermal papillae
A permanent scar will form in the skin only when an injury damages the ____
Fingerprints (can, cannot) be changed during a person lifetime.
loops, whorls, and arches
The three general pattern into which fingerprints are divided are ___, _____, and _____
The most common fingerprint pattern is the
Approximately 5 percent of the population has ____ fingerprint pattern
A loop pattern that opens toward the thumb is known as a
type lines
The pattern area of the loop is enclosed by two diverging ridges known as
the ridge point nearest the type-line divergence is known as the
All loops must have ___ delta(s)
The approximate center of a loop pattern is called the
plain whorl
If an imaginary line is drawn between the two deltas of a whorl pattern touches any of the spiral ridges, the pattern is classified as a
plain arch
The simplest of all fingerprint patterns is the
have no
Arches (have, have no) type lines, deltas, or cores
whorl pattern
The presence or absence of the ____ pattern is used as a basis for determining the primary classification in the Henry system
The largest category (25 percent) in the primary classification ststem is
A fingerprint classification system (can, cannot) unequivocally identify an idnividual
Computerized fingerprint search systems match prints by comparing the position of bifurcation and ridge endings (true or false)
A finger left by a person with soiled or stained fingertips is called a _____
____ fingerprints are impressions left on a soft material
Fingerprint impressions that are not readily visible are called ____
Powder, superglue
Fingerprints on har and nonabsorbent surfaces are best developed by application of a ____
Fingerprints on porous surfaces are best developed with ____ treatment
_____ vapors will chemically combine with fatty oils or residual water to visualize a fingerprint
The chemical ____ visualizes fingerprints by its reaction with amino acid
phyical developer
Chemical treatment with ____ visualizes fingerprints on porous articles that may have been wet at one time
A letent fingerprint is first tested with physical developer followed by ninhydrin (true, false)
Super Glue Fuming
A chemical technique known as ____ is used for developing latent prints on nonprous surfaces such as metal and plastic
______ is a phenomenon that occures when a substance absorbs light and reemits the light in wavelengths longer than the illumination source
laser light
High intensity light sources known as _____ have proven to be effective in developing latent fingerprints.
a photograph
Once a fingerprint has been visualized it must be preserved by a ______
The image produced from a digital file is compose of numerous square electronic dots called
frequency fourier transform
a ______ is used to identify repetitive patterns such as lines or dots that interfere with the interpretation of a digitized fingerprint image.