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Arts and Humanities
Jesus and the Church Chapter 2 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (24)
A Christian virtue of charity and friendship whereby members of the human family share material and spiritual goods.
The central mystery of the Christian faith. It teaches that there are Three Divine Persons in one God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The movement, inspired and led by the Holy Spirit, that seeks the union of all Christian religions and eventually the unity of all peoples throughout the world within the Catholic Church
The denial of Christ and the repudiation of the Christian Faith by a baptized Christian
Central truths of the Catholic faith, defined by the Magisterium, that Catholics are obliged to believe.
An obstinate denial after Baptism to believe a truth that must be believed with divine and Catholic faith, or an obstinate doubt about such truth.
Gatherings of all the Catholic bishops of the world. The word ecumenical pertains to a theological recognition of and willingness to learn from those different faith traditions. Ecumenical councils determine those things which all the local churches (dioceses) will hold in common.
idol worship; blind or excessive devotion
The living transmission of the Church's Gospel message found in the Church's teaching, life, and worship. It is faithfully preserved, handed on, and interpreted by the Church's Magisterium.
A Greek term employed to describe the union of the human and divine natures of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in the one divine person (hypostasis). The First Council of Ephesus used and affirmed this teaching.
Gnosticism false beliefs
Claimed that secret knowledge (gnosis) of salvation was transmitted by Christ to the Apostles or selected followers.
Denied the Resurrection of Christ and would not accept that the Son of God took on human flesh. Said material reality is evil.
Denied the validity of Scripture and the authority of the pope and bishops to rule the Church.
Gnosticism Church's response
St. Irenaeus, the Bishop of Lyons in his "Against Heresies", highlighting the importance of Sacred Tradition for arriving at religious truth.
Argued that God intended to join the physical nature of humans with his spiritual nature.
The source of right teaching and belief resides with the Church because the Church was founded by Jesus and entrusted to St. Peter.
Arianism false beliefs
Named for Arius, a priest from Alexandria who was influenced by Greek philosophy, Arianism denied Jesus' divinity.
Held that Jesus was God's greatest creature who was made before time, but a creature nonetheless.
Arianism Church's response
The Council of Nicaea (325) condemned Arianism and expressed the Church's belief in the Nicene Creed.
Taught that Jesus is consubstantial with the Father, that is, Christ possesses the same nature as God the Father.
Apollinarianism false beliefs
Named for Apollinaris, a fourth-century bishop of Laodicea, this heresy claimed that although Jesus had a human body, he had no human soul.
Apollinarianism Church's response
In 381 the First Council of Constantinople labeled this belief a heresy and taught that Jesus was fully man and fully God.
Nestorianism false beliefs
Nestorius, the patriarch of Constantinople, made a further distinction between Christ's humanity and divinity, teaching that some of Christ's traits were purely human and others were purely divine.
Mary was the Mother of only Jesus' human self and
that she should not be called Theotokos, or Mother of God.
Nestorianism Church's response
The Council of Ephesus responded in 431 stating clearly that Jesus is one Person with two natures. Everything Jesus experienced was with his whole Person. From the moment of his conception, Jesus was fully human and fully divine.
Mary can rightly be called the Mother of God.
The Greek title of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Its literal English translations include "God-bearer", "Birth-Giver of God" and "the one who gives birth to God."
Monophysitism false beliefs
Preached by Eastern monks and theologians, this heresy held that Christ possessed only a divine
nature and that his human nature was absorbed into his divine nature like "a drop of honey into the water of the sea."
Monophysitism Church's response
At the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the doctrine of hypostatic union was taught by Pope Leo I and endorsed by the Council with the resounding words: "Peter has spoken through Leo." It taught that Jesus is one Divine Person with two natures: a divine nature and a human nature. (Following the Council of Chalcedon, those who accepted monopohystism formed the Oriental Orthodox churches.)
An effort to reform the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century, which led to the separation of large numbers of Christians from communion with Rome.
Deposit of Faith
The heritage of faith contained in Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition, handed down in the Church from the time of the Apostles, from which the Magisterium draws all that it proposes for belief as being divinely revealed"
false doctrine taught by John Calvin that God determines people for Salvation or damnation before they are born and that no human effort can merit Salvation or entrance into the elect.
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