The passive movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration. This happens along a concentration gradient
A passive movement of water molecules through a semi permeable membrane. Water moves from an area of low solute concentration to high solute concentration
An active movement where an input of energy is required. Particles move from low concentration to high concentration
A passive movement of particles from high to low concentration through a protein channel in a cell.
The same concentration of dissolved substances. Water in = water out.
Higher concentration of solutes outside cell than inside
A cell has more solute inside than outside.
Cell may explode under pressure due to a hypotonic solution.
Movement out of a cell
Movement into a cell
A vesicle that contains destructive/digestive chemicals
A form of endocytosis where a cell engulfs liquid into the cell.
A form of endocytosis where a cell engulfs solids into a cell
Questions that can be answered by using experiments and factual reasoning.
The study of living organisms and how they function.
A method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
1st part of the scientific method
Experimental design refers to how participants are allocated to the different conditions (or IV groups) in an experiment.
factors that are kept constant or unchanging.
The process of studying of something to gain information.
A conclusion made up of facts and inferring knowledge.
The final ending or idea of a process
A statement about the hypothesis
The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life
The genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring.
packages proteins from the ER and materials and sends them to other parts of the cell
network or tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell with a smooth surface; functions in a variety of different metabolic processes such as synthesis of lipids, oils, phospholipid and steroids; process drugs, alcohol, and store calcium ions
network of tubular membanes within the cytoplasm of the cell with a rough surface (ribosomes are attached to it); helps the ribosomes make proteins, such as insulin
tiny structures within the cell that carry out specific functions
forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings; made if phospholipids
oval-shaped organelle that contains DNA and controls much of the cell's activities by directing protein synthesis
carries out cellular respiration; rod-shaped organelle that makes energy for the cell to function with; converts the energy stored in food to energy the cell can use (ATP); "powerhouse" of cell
nuclear subdomain that assembles ribosomal subunits in eukaryotic cells; makes rRNA to form the subunits of ribosomes, which then exit to the cytoplasm
complex of DNA and proteins that form within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells; directs the cells' functions
sac-like organelle that holds water, food and organisms; can also store waste products until removed
green structure that captures energy from sunlight and changes it to energy that cells can use in making food.
plant, bacteria or archea cell
animal cell with nucleus
small grain-shaped organelle that produces proteins
thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the cell and controls what goes in and out; found in animal cells
the thick fluid region of a cell inside the membrane or next to the nucleus
membrane-enclosed sac of digestive enzymes; contains chemicals that break down bigger food particles so they can be used in the cell; also break down used cell parts. The cell's "recycling center".
rigid layer surrounding the cells of plants
made of many cells
small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way
thin membrane of lipid molecules
part of cytoplasm not held by an organelle
the appendages that propel certain cells
networks of protein fibers that extend through the cell
all living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells
why are cells so small?
smaller cells have more surface area across which to pass oxygen, nutrients and waste materials
a projection from a prokaryotic cell that propels it through its liquid environment
chemical activities of cells
double membrane enclosing the nucleus; controls the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus
where are ribosomes found?
free-floating in the cytosol, or bound to the rough ER or the nuclear envelope
sacs made of membranes
what makes up the endomembrane system?
nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles and the plasma membrane.
What does the Golgi apparatus do?
processes, warehouses and ships (outside and inside cell) ER products
folds in the mitochondria that increase the surface area and therefore its ability to produce ATP
Adenine Triphosphate - main energy source for cellular work
What type of cell is this?
What type of cell is this?
X) cell wall
Which of the following is NOT a structure found in human cells: W) mitochondrion X) cell wall Y) lysosome Z) peroxisome
What organelle functions to isolate a human cell's chromosomes from the cytoplasm?
What is the basic unit of life?
In what organelle of a plant cell does photosynthesis occur?
It is generally believed that most of the oxygen in the air on Earth today came from what general biological process:
What is the most common term for the biological polymer found in chromosomes that stores genetic information?
The spontaneous movement of molecules through a semi-permeable membrane in order to create equilibrium.
These structures are located inside of a cell's...
Sets of organs in our bodies that do the work to keep us healthy and alive.
Small part of all living things.
Made of thousands of cells, connected by several body systems to do work to keep our bodies healthy & alive.
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy. products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen
photosynthesis equation(very important)
6CO2 + 6H2O --> light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food. main function of chloroplasts is to produce food (glucose) Chloroplasts contain the pigment, chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs most of the colors in the color spectrum, and reflects only green and yellow wavelengths of light. This is why we see leaves as green or yellow - because these colors are reflected into our eyes.
another name for sugar C6H12O6 three things used for making glucose are sunlight water and carbon dioxide used for energy and growth
main source of energy
C6H1206->CO2 + H20+ ENERGY (released) goal is to create ATP occurs in all living things
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work the energy is stored in ATP until it is released by the reactions remove a phosphate from ATP a simple way of remembering it is just that it's just energy
The sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism's life functions.
The sum total of all processes in an organism which use energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.
The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks.
The process by which green plants and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight and simple chemicals to produce their own food.
Organisms that eat only plants.
Organisms that eat only organisms other than plants.
Organisms that eat both plants and other organisms.
Organisms that produce their own food.
Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food.
Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms.
Organisms that are able to make their own food.
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food.
Reproduction accomplished by a single organism.
Reproduction that requires two organisms
The process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent (or parents) to the offspring.
An abrupt and marked change in the DNA of an organism compared to that of its parents
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question.
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye.
A cell with distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
A unit of one or more populations of individuals that can reproduce under normal conditions, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such units.
An organism that feeds on a living host.
An organism that requires oxygen.
An organism that does not require oxygen.
Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.
The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell's main DNA.
A membrane-bounded "sac" within a cell.
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
A pigment necessary for photosynthesis.
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association.
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion.
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms.
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility.
A thin covering of tissue.
The basic building blocks of matter.
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen.
A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons.
Chemicals that result from atoms linking together.
A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance.
A change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance.
One of the three forms--solid, liquid, or gas--which every substance is capable of attaining.
The random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
A measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent.
A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through.
The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration.
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous.
Lacking any affinity to water.
Maintaining the status quo.
Producing more cells.
The study of cells.
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells.
The semipermeable membrane between the contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings.
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids.
Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible fore protein synthesis.
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell.
ER that is dotted with ribosomes.
ER that has no ribosomes.
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes.
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells.
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules.
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell.
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure.
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell.
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement.
Fine, threadlike proteins found in a cell's cytoskeleton.
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group.
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion.
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in a solution.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Deoxyriboneucleic acid found mainly in the nucleus
2 parents male and female
made up of DNA and proteins
state reaches when each part of the body functions in equilibrium with other parts.
is a carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen. In DNA, Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine.
all chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism.
Liquid portion of blood
WHAT YOU MEASURE- ON Y AXIS
WHAT YOU CHOOSE VALUES FOR- ON Y AXIS
VARIABLES THAT REMAIN CONSTANT OR UNCHANGED
the change in shape or organisms over time. Ex. a child's ________ is very fast.
the branch of biology that studies the interactions of organisms with one another and with nonliving parts of their environment
sections of chromosomes made of DNA that code for traits. The basic unit of heredity.
the complete genetic material contained in an individual.
the passing of traits from parent to offspring. Ex. scientists know that _____ can increase chances for certain diseases.
organisms in a biological community live and interact with other organisms.
a change in the DNA of a gene.
process in which organisms with favorable genes are more likely to survive to reproduce. Ex. the idea of ____ ______ was first presented by Charles Darwin.
any living thing; something that meets all criteria of life. Ex. so far, we have not found proof of any living ________ on another planet.
a relative measure of the hydrogen ion concentration within a solution; Latin for "probably hydrogens".
process by which cells become specialized for specific functions.
taking in food from the environment.
process by which organisms maintain homeostasis, a stable internal environment.
process by which organisms produce new organisms of their own kind
the state of both sides are balanced
the process of change that has transformed life on Earth
a system of ideas that explains many related observations and is supported by a large body of evidence acquired through scientific investigation