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56 terms

Antimicrobial Drugs 1

Paul Ehrlich
The history of chemotherapy originated with who?
What is Paul Ehrlich associated with?
selective toxicity
What did Paul Ehrlich originate the concept of?
Who originated the concept of selective toxicity?
What did Ehrlich discover?
What does salvarsan cure?
What is syphilis cured by?
Alexander Fleming
Who discovered penicillin?
What did Alexander Fleming discover?
What produces a substance that kills gram-positive bacteria?
What kind of bacteria does penicillium mold kill?
pharmaceutical lab
Where are synthetic agents made?
products of living microorganisms
What are antibiotics?
What are products of or derived from living microorganisms?
synthetic and antibiotic elements
What do semisynthetic drugs include?
Which drugs include synthetic and antibiotic elements?
drug should harm pathogen not host
What does selective toxicity mean?
selective toxicity
What does it mean when a drug should harm the pathogen but not the host?
causes harm to the host
What is a toxic dose of a drug?
What dose of a drug is the concentration causing harm to the host?
eliminates pathogens
What is a therapeutic dose?
therapeutic dose
What is the concentration eliminating pathogens in the host?
toxic and therapeutic doses
What are used to formulate the chemotherapeutic index?
chemotherapeutic index
Together, the toxic and therapeutic doses are used to formulate what?
antimicrobial spectrum
What is the range of activity drugs have on pathogens on which they will work called?
many taxonomic groups
Broad spectrum drugs affect what?
only a few pathogens
Narrow spectrum drugs affect what?
Which spectrum drugs affect many taxonomic groups?
Which spectrum drugs affect only a few pathogens?
metabolic reactions
What do sulfanilamide and other sulfonamides target?
essential folic acid components
Sulfonamides out compete what for binding sites in a bacterial enzyme?
What out compete essential folic acid components for binding sites in a bacterial enzyme?
binding sites
Sulfonamides out compete essential folic acid components for what in a bacterial enzyme?
bacterial enzyme
Sulfonamides out compete essential folic acid components for binding sites in what?
nucleic acid synthesis, DNA replication
What do sulfanilamide and other sulfonamides prevent from happening? (2)
cell wall synthesis
What does isoniazid interfere with?
block DNA synthesis
What do quinolones do?
What are used to treat UTIs?
What do fluoroguinolones used to treat?
What is the most widely used antibiotic?
cell wall synthesis
What do penicillins interfere with?
What can inactivate penicillin?
What do beta-lactamases inactivate?
ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin
What are some semisynthetic penicillins? (3)
Cephalosporins are (broader/narrower) spectrum alternatives to penicillins.
aerobic, gram-negative rods
What are monobactams active against? (VERY specific)
Are carbapenems broad or narrow spectrum drugs?
cell wall synthesis
What does vancomycin inhibit?
Is vancomycin effective against gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria?
damage to ears and kidneys
What are side effects of vancomycin?
cell membrane
What do polypeptide antibiotics affect?
Is bacitracin toxic used internally or topically?
What is streptomycin sometimes used against?
gram-negative infections
What is gentamicin used against?
intestinal infections, ointment
What is neomycin used for? (2)
gram-negative bacteria
What is kanamycin used against?