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Paul Ehrlich

The history of chemotherapy originated with who?


What is Paul Ehrlich associated with?

selective toxicity

What did Paul Ehrlich originate the concept of?


Who originated the concept of selective toxicity?


What did Ehrlich discover?


What does salvarsan cure?


What is syphilis cured by?

Alexander Fleming

Who discovered penicillin?


What did Alexander Fleming discover?


What produces a substance that kills gram-positive bacteria?


What kind of bacteria does penicillium mold kill?

pharmaceutical lab

Where are synthetic agents made?

products of living microorganisms

What are antibiotics?


What are products of or derived from living microorganisms?

synthetic and antibiotic elements

What do semisynthetic drugs include?


Which drugs include synthetic and antibiotic elements?

drug should harm pathogen not host

What does selective toxicity mean?

selective toxicity

What does it mean when a drug should harm the pathogen but not the host?

causes harm to the host

What is a toxic dose of a drug?


What dose of a drug is the concentration causing harm to the host?

eliminates pathogens

What is a therapeutic dose?

therapeutic dose

What is the concentration eliminating pathogens in the host?

toxic and therapeutic doses

What are used to formulate the chemotherapeutic index?

chemotherapeutic index

Together, the toxic and therapeutic doses are used to formulate what?

antimicrobial spectrum

What is the range of activity drugs have on pathogens on which they will work called?

many taxonomic groups

Broad spectrum drugs affect what?

only a few pathogens

Narrow spectrum drugs affect what?


Which spectrum drugs affect many taxonomic groups?


Which spectrum drugs affect only a few pathogens?

metabolic reactions

What do sulfanilamide and other sulfonamides target?

essential folic acid components

Sulfonamides out compete what for binding sites in a bacterial enzyme?


What out compete essential folic acid components for binding sites in a bacterial enzyme?

binding sites

Sulfonamides out compete essential folic acid components for what in a bacterial enzyme?

bacterial enzyme

Sulfonamides out compete essential folic acid components for binding sites in what?

nucleic acid synthesis, DNA replication

What do sulfanilamide and other sulfonamides prevent from happening? (2)

cell wall synthesis

What does isoniazid interfere with?

block DNA synthesis

What do quinolones do?


What are used to treat UTIs?


What do fluoroguinolones used to treat?


What is the most widely used antibiotic?

cell wall synthesis

What do penicillins interfere with?


What can inactivate penicillin?


What do beta-lactamases inactivate?

ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin

What are some semisynthetic penicillins? (3)


Cephalosporins are (broader/narrower) spectrum alternatives to penicillins.

aerobic, gram-negative rods

What are monobactams active against? (VERY specific)


Are carbapenems broad or narrow spectrum drugs?

cell wall synthesis

What does vancomycin inhibit?


Is vancomycin effective against gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria?

damage to ears and kidneys

What are side effects of vancomycin?

cell membrane

What do polypeptide antibiotics affect?


Is bacitracin toxic used internally or topically?


What is streptomycin sometimes used against?

gram-negative infections

What is gentamicin used against?

intestinal infections, ointment

What is neomycin used for? (2)

gram-negative bacteria

What is kanamycin used against?

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