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Immigration Unit (Kish)
Terms in this set (70)
True/False: Every American is either an immigrant or has ancestors who were immigrants.
Major contributor to the population of the U.S.
immigrants arriving before 1880; mostly from Protestant countries in Northern Europe; tended to be literate, wealthy, and Protestant and therefore, adapted easily to American life
immigrants arriving from 1880 until 1920's; from Southern and Eastern Europe
What countries did most of the old immigrants migrate from?
England, France, Ireland, and Germany
What are push/pull factors for immigration?
Push - something happening in the home country causing people to immigrate to the U.S.
Pull - seeking political and economic freedom in America
What led to the political unrest and social revolutions happening in Europe?
Governments pushing economic expansion in an effort to keep pace with the U.S.
What were the reasons people wanted to leave their countries?
1. high unemployment
2. repressive government
3. lack of opportunity
4. escape religious persecution
5. Irish potato famine
True/False - During the 18th and 19th centuries, America had encouraged relatively free and open immigration.
True/False - As the number of immigrants increased, the federal government claimed the responsibility of accepting or limiting immigration.
New York Harbor was designated as an entry point on the East Coast
San Francisco Bay was designated as an entry point on the West Coast.
Between 1880 and 1920, how many immigrants arrived in the U.S.
more than 20 million
True/False - As the number of immigrants grew, tensions arose around the issue of immigration.
Which immigrants were considered more desirable?
Those from northern European countries
Why did old immigrants consider the new immigrants an economic problem?
New immigrants were lowering wages, weakening unions, and taking jobs.
What was the cause of the increase in the number of Catholic immigrants during the 1840's?
The Potato Famine in Ireland and the conditions in Eastern Europe and Italy
What was the Know-Nothing Party?
fought foreign influences and promoted traditional American ideals; formed by a group of old immigrants
Why did Italian immigrants face discrimination and prejudice?
They were unskilled, uneducated, and often accused of crimes.
What caused many Chinese immigrants to come to the U.S.?
the Gold Rush
What jobs did the Chinese immigrants hold during the Gold Rush?
laborers in mines, railroads, and agricultural laborers
Who was blamed for the major economic downturn following the Gold Rush? What happened as a result?
Chinese immigrants were blamed. This led to violence.
What was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?
the banning of Chinese immigration for 10 years
Some segments of the population were against continued immigration, while others supported it. Who supported it and why?
Business - wanted a continued source of cheap labor
Political Machines and Bosses - wanted to control the immigrant vote to maintain power
Catholic Churches - immigrants increased the power of the church and political power
Who opposed new immigration and why?
Labor Unions - immigrants would weaken unions
Nativists - immigrants would refuse to learn American customs and English that would lead to the decline of American society
What is an ethnic neighborhood?
City neighborhoods that immigrants lived in with other people who spoke their native language; practiced their religions; and followed customs from the old country
What are some of Pittsburgh's ethnic neighborhoods?
Italian - Bloomfield, Brookline, and Oakland
Eastern European - South Side
German - Troy Hill, Mt. Washington, and East Allegheny
African American - Hill District, Larimer, & Hazelwood
Jewish - Squirrel Hill
Why did immigrants settle in ethnic neighborhoods?
They wanted to be around something familiar, own businesses, and banks.
What were Benevolent Societies?
social organizations that assisted the poor; provided assistance to the sick, unemployed, and tried to improve living conditions
What caused the shift in population from rural to urban areas during 1900's?
the Second Industrialization and a large influx of immigrants
TRUE/FALSE - Cities (urban areas) were well prepared for this increase of population.
What was tenement housing?
poorly built and overcrowded apartment buildings; lacked indoor plumbing and proper ventilation; poorly lit
How was steel used to solve the problems in the cities?
Skyscrapers - Enabled buildings to be more than 3 stories which increased the number of apartments
Mass Transit - Elevated trains, subways, cable cars, and trolleys moved people to and from work
How did the creation of a mass transit system change were people lived?
The wealthy were able to move to the suburbs.
Who was Joseph Pulitzer?
well known in the newspaper journalism world; owned The New York World (the largest circulating newspaper in the country with 600,000 papers sold daily); crusaded against public and private corruption; first to use illustrations in his paper;
Who was William Randolph Hearst?
owner of the New York Morning Journal and the Evening Journal; investigated reports on governmental corruption; used yellow journalism techniques
uses eye catching headlines with exaggerations of news events based on little truth
What were the New York Newspaper Wars?
Pulitzer and Hearst competed to sell the most newspapers. Hearst cut price by 1 cent. Pulitzer matched the price. Hearst offered higher salaries and better positions to get writers from the New York World. Hearst won with a combined circulation to 1.5 million.
What was Marshall Field's?
A Chicago department store. Offered credit, money back guarantees, and unconditional refunds and free delivery, female workers, and in-store dining. They had the Great Clock where shoppers would meet; a Tiffany ceiling mosaic made by Louis Comfort Tiffany; and the South Tea Room for dining.
How was the ice cream cone invented?
At the 1904 World Fair in St. Louis an ice cream vendor ran out of dishes. So a waffle vendor made a cone to be used instead of dishes.
Who was Frederick Law Olmstead?
He's the designer of Central Park in New York. He won a competition to design it. Traffic flowed under the park.
became popular at this time; Kennywood Park was built at the end of a trolley track; provided rides, attractions, and food
What were robber barons?
Corporate bosses who used unethical and unfair business practices to eliminate competition and increase profits.
What was the Progressive Movement?
a reaction to the negative effects of industrialization (i.e., the brutal and dangerous working conditions that many factory workers were subjected to)
What were the Progressive Reformers?
People who wanted to regulate industry, strengthen protection for workers and consumers, and expose governmental corruption.
What was the world's view of the Progressive Reformers?
It was based upon a few assumptions: human nature could be improved through regulation, incentives, and punishments and power of the federal government could be reduced to improve society.
What did political conservatives believe about regulating industry?
They believed that human nature was not changeable and the federal government should remain limited in size and scope.
How people were made aware of the terrible living and working conditions experienced by many.
What was the major goal of the Progressive Reformers?
To help the poor with codes, parks, sanitation, and the reduction of death rates.
What were Muckrakers?
Progressive journalists who wrote about the problems of society.
Who was Ida Tarbell?
wrote The History of the Standard Oil Company, which portrayed John D. Rockefeller as a greedy, miserable monopolist.
Who was Ida B. Wells?
Wrote Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in all its Phases; helped found National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Who was Jacob Riis?
a photojournalist who exposed the poor living conditions in tenements in his book, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York.
New York Tenement House Act of 1901
the result of Jacob Riis's book, How the Other Half Lives..., being published
Who was Upton Sinclair?
wrote The Jungle, which exposed the abuses in the meat packaging industry; made the public aware of working conditions and unsanitary stockyards
Food and Drug Act of 1906
the result of Upton Sinclair's book, The Jungle
What were the problems of urban living were the muckrakers and Progressive Reformers able to expose?
1.) Shortage of decent affordable housing
2.) No laws for the safe handling of food
3.) No laws requiring landlords to maintain safety standards or repair buildings
4.) Tenements had few or no windows, running water, or indoor plumbing
5.) Lack of clean water
6.) No garbage collection
What was the result of the terrible living conditions?
Diseases and bacteria spread. There was a lack of proper hygiene and little knowledge of sanitation, which lead to the spread of deadly diseases in crowded cities.
caused by sewage contaminated drinking water; in 1849 there were 5,000 cases of it in New York
caused by salmonella in contaminated food or water; in 1865 there were 5,000 cases in New York
Bacterial infection that attacks the lungs and is spread in the air; in 1865 there were 17,000 cases in New York
Infant mortality rate
poor living conditions and unsafe food supply caused nutrition issues and increased the spread of diseases; therefore, causing the infant mortality rate to be 15,000 cases in New York in 1900
True/False - Pittsburgh (the "Smoky City") was one of the most polluted cities during this time
TRUE - increased industrial output meant an increase in pollution
used in steel mills and to heat homes
True/False - Rivers were used for transportation and disposal of sewage
True - From 1862 to 1908, Pittsburgh had the highest typhoid fever mortality rate as a result of the
New York State Tenement House Act of 1902
Required new buildings to have better ventilation and running water
What were settlement houses?
provided services for neighbors and to remedy the impact of poverty; an important reform
first settlement house in the U.S.
Neighborhood Guild Lower East Side of New York
invited neighbors for lecture, theatre, clubs, and other recreational activities; provided education and recreation; social reform; wanted to develop working class clubs within the guilds that would work for permanent reforms
Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr
influential women who campaigned and won reforms in housing, work, and sanitation; started Hull House near west side of Chicago; campaigned for: protective legislation for women, child labor laws, kindergarten and public schools, health clinics, libraries, and women's suffrage
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