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Antimicrobial Drugs 2
Terms in this set (30)
bacteria, rickettsiae, fungi
What is chloramphenicol used against? (3)
very serious infections
Is chloramphenicol reserved for very serious infections or for the everyday cold?
aplastic anemia, gray syndrome
What are some severe side effects of chloramphenicol? (2)
What do tetracyclines interfere with?
destroy intestinal microbiota, stain teeth
What are the side effects of tetracyclines? (2)
What is macrolide erythromycin used against?
What kind of drug is clindamycin?
penicillin resistant bacteria
What is clindamycin used against?
What are streptogramins effective against?
What are oxazolidinones effective against?
What does rifampin interfere with?
tuberculosis, leprosy, meningitis
What is rifampin effective against? (3)
What can rifampin cause in the body?
minimum inhibitory concentration
What does the tube dilution method determine?
What method determines the minimum inhibitory concentration?
MIC and MBC
What values does the tube dilution method determine?
What method determines the MIC and MBC values?
agar disk diffusion
What method involves different antibiotics diffusing from paper disks in a bacterial colony?
The agar disk diffusion method involves different what diffusing from paper disks in a bacterial colony?
The agar disk diffusion method involves different antibiotics diffusing from what in a bacterial colony?
The agar disk diffusion method involves different antibiotics diffusing from paper disks in a what?
Have many species of bacteria evolved resistance to certain antibiotics and synthetic agents?
antibiotic inactivation, target modification, active export, alternate metabolic pathway
What are the four mechanisms of antibiotic resistance?
four mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
What are these? 1) antibiotic inactivation 2) target modification 3) active export of antibiotics 4) alternate metabolic pathway
bacteria evolve the ability to enzymatically inactivate an antibiotic
Explain antibiotic inactivation.
bacteria evolve changes in drug targets like ribosomes or enzymes
Explain target modification.
bacteria evolve ability to prevent drug entry into the cytoplasm
Explain active export of antibiotics.
resistance to sulfonamides may develop if the bacterial enzyme changes
Explain alternate metabolic pathway.
Improper or excessive use of antibiotics causes what?
improper or excessive use of antibiotics
What causes antibiotic resistance?
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