29 terms

Transcription & Translation Exam

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Terms in this set (...)

Components of DNA and RNA (parts)
DNA- nucleotides, phosphate group, pentose sugar, and nitrogenous base

RNA- nucleotides, phosphate group, pentose sugar (ribose sugar), and nitrogenous base.
What makes up a nucleotide
1. 5-carbon sugar
2. a phosphate molecule
3. one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine or uracil.
What is a repeating nucleotide called
nucleic acid (DNA and RNA)
Adenine
Found in BOTH- DNA and RNA
Thymine
Found in ONLY- DNA
Guanine
Found in BOTH- DNA and RNA
Cytosine
Found in BOTH- DNA and RNA
Ribose
Found in ONLY- RNA
Deoxyribose
Found in ONLY- DNA
Uracil
Found in ONLY- RNA
Phosphate group
Found in BOTH- DNA and RNA
5-carbon sugar= pentose
Found in BOTH- DNA and RNA
What are anticodons
Carries a specific amino acid into a ribosome and pairs with the complementary codon on the mRNA inside a ribosome.
What is a codon
A codon is a three-nucleotide sequence (3 base) that codes for a specific amino acid.
Where are anticodons found
Closed end of tRNA (transfer RNA)
Where are codons found?
mRNA (messenger RNA)
What is transcription
Transcription is the process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA.

Occurs in the nucleus
What is translation?
Making protein from an amino acid sequence on a mRNA molecule.
What organelle doe translation take place in?
ribosome
Order of the stages of transcription
1. Initiation- Enzymes unzip the molecule of DNA

2. Elongation- Free RNA nucleotides form base pairs with their complimentary nucleotides of DNA.

3. Termination- The mRNA strand leaves the nucleus.
Number of strands for RNA and DNA
RNA (tRNA & rRNA)- 1 each of the 3 types- called a single helix

DNA(2- called a double helix)
Number of possible combinations of nucleotides when 3 are present
64
Polypeptides are made up of what
Amino acids
Building block of protein (polypeptide)
Amino acid
Backbone of DNA and RNA
Alternating 5-carbon sugars (pentose) AND phosphate groups
Number of nucleotides for a specific AA (amino acids)
3
Differences between RNA and DNA
1. Uracil vs. Thymine

2. RNA is a single strand and DNA is a double helix

3. RNA is found anywhere it is needed and DNA is found in the nucleus

4. RNA has ribose sugar and DNA has deoxyribose sugar
RNA enzyme used to construct 3 types of RNA from DNA (transcription)
RNA polymerase
Enzymes used to make DNA from DNA (replication)
DNA helicase= unzips DNA molecule (double helix)

DNA polymerase= pairs up the complementary nitrogen bases

DNA ligase= repairs