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Bioprinciples Exam 2 - Brooks

Terms in this set (269)

First Stage = Glycolysis
- oxidizes glucose into 2, 3-carbon chain pyruvate molecules
- anaerobic (oxygen not required) or facilitated anaerobic
- fate of pyruvate is dependent on presence or absence of oxygen
- oxygen unavailable = pyruvate converted into CO₂ and ethanol or lactic acid through fermentation reactions
- function of fermentation = to supply NAD⁺
- fermentation = inefficient, but better than nothing when oxygen is absent
- oxygen present = pyruvate converted to Acetyl CoA to enter Krebs Cycle
- lipids and proteins enter Krebs Cycle where they are oxidized
- net = 2 ATP and 2 NADH

Second Stage = Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle
- Acetyl CoA is completely oxidized to CO₂
- Lipids and proteins are completely oxidized
- some ATP is formed after oxidizing glucose, but most of the energy captured is in the form of NADH and FADH₂
- NADH and FADH₂ display electrons to the cytochromes of the ETS embedded in the cristae membrane
- net = 2 ATP, NADH, CO2 and FADH2

Third Stage = Electron Transport Chain/Oxidative Phosphorylation/Chemiosmosis Phosphorylation
- As NADH reduces the first cytochrome, protons travel to the electrons previously on the cytochrome
- protons are pumped to the outer compartment (inter-membrane) of the mitochondrion
- after electrons travel through the ETC, oxygen accepts electrons
- as electrons accumulate via ETC, a proton gradient forms (a battery full of PE is created across the membrane)
- an electrical current of protons allows the transfer back into the matrix through special channels and combine with oxygen and hydrogen in F1 particles to form water
- some energy is captured in F1 particles and used to drive a endergonic reaction
- net = 34 ATP and NAD⁺

Total Net = 36 ATP

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