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Lecture Exam 3
Terms in this set (42)
Parasympathetic stimulation reduces heart rate.
The __________ are the superior chambers of the heart and the _________ are the inferior chambers of the heart.
Which of the following is not a feature of cardiac muscle?
They have about the same endurance as skeletal muscle fibers.
When the left ventricle contracts, the __________ valve closes and the __________ valve is pushed open.
The long absolute refractory period of cardiomyocytes _________.
The fibrous skeleton of the heart serves as electrical insulation between the atria and the ventricles.
Opening and closing of the heart valves is caused by _________.
The plateau in the action potential of cardiac muscle results from the action of __________.
slow Ca2+ channels
Oxygen-poor blood passes through the _________.
right AV (tricuspid) and pulmonary valves
If the sinoatrial (SA) node is damaged, the heart will likely beat at __________ bpm.
40 to 50
Which of the following belong to the pulmonary circuit?
Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins
When the ventricles relax, the __________ valve prevents backflow of blood into the left ventricle.
Papillary muscles prevent the AV valves from prolapsing (bulging) excessively into the atria when the ventricles contract.
Mitral valve prolapse causes blood to leak back into the __________ when the ventricles contract.
Which of the following carry oxygen-poor blood?
Venae cavae and pulmonary arteries
Any abnormal cardiac rhythm is called a(n) __________.
When sodium channels are fully open, the membrane of the ventricular cardiomyocyte _________.
The systemic circuit contains oxygen-rich blood only.
Under normal conditions, the amount of blood pumped through the pulmonary circuit is less than the amount pumped through the systemic circuit.
The __________ valve regulates the flow of blood between the right ventricle and the vessels leading to the lungs.
The area where the major vessels lead to and from the heart's chambers is called the __________ of the heart. The pointy, inferior portion is called the ___________.
The __________ provides most of the Ca2+ needed for myocardial contraction.
The heart is located in the space called the __________.
Which of the following directly stems from the ascending aorta before it branches into the circumflex branch and anterior interventricular branch?
left coronary artery
Exercise causes the ventricles to hypertrophy.
Which of the following blood vessels receives blood directly from the right ventricle?
The __________ is the pacemaker that initiates each heart beat.
Cells of the sinoatrial node __________ during the pacemaker potential.
Atrial depolarization causes the _________.
Endurance athletes commonly have a resting heart rate as low as 40 bpm, and a stroke volume as low as 50 mL/beat.
Cellular immunity uses B cells and humoral immunity uses antibodies.
___________ employ a "respiratory burst" to produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorite (HClO).
A(n) __________ is the region of the molecule that is recognized by antibodies.
The __________ show(s) a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age.
T cells achieve immunocompetence in the __________.
Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in __________.
Memory T cells can be up to __________ old.
Complement fixation cannot lead to __________.
Lymph originates in blood capillaries that pick up tissue fluid.
Clonal selection of T cells happens in the thymus.
Removal of the __________ would be more harmful to a one-year-old child than an adult
Which of the following is something antibodies do not do?
Differentiate into memory antibodies, which upon reexposure to the same pathogen would mount a quicker attack
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