205 terms

PSY 381 Final

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Phrenology is an old belief that bumps on the skull somehow correspond to brain regions that are responsible for specific behavioral capacities.
True
The neural cell nucleus carries genetic instructions encoded in DNA, just like other cells in the body.
True
In terms of the components of a neuron, dendrites are found in the Output Zone
False
Sensory neurons carry neural messages from peripheral sense organs to the spinal chord and brain.
True
Individual neural cell bodies somehow store sensory information brought in from peripheral nerves.
False
A unipolar neuron has its cell body directly in line with its dendritric and axonal branches.
False
A multipolar neuron has a single dendritic branch
False
Glial cells connect sensory neurons to central neurons.
False
The input zone is where axon terminals are found.
False
The elaborate branching of dendrites is called arborization.
True
There is no space between the pre-synaptic and postsynaptic elements.
False
There are usually many axons per neuron.
False
The part of the neural cell body that integrates information from all the synapses and initiates axon impulses is called:
Axon Hillock
Oligodendrocytes produce myelin.
True
A neuron type that transmits motor messages is a motor neuron.
True
What is the range in size of nerve cell bodies?
10 to 100 microns
All of the following are glial cell types
Microglial cells, astrocytes, Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes
The swelling of tissue in the brain is called:
Edema
Neural plasticity refers to:
remodeling of connections between neurons
Dorsal roots carry sensory information from the peripheral nervous system to the spinal chord for transmission to the brain.
True
An ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost a positively charged proton.
False
The cell membrane is a lipid bilayer that by itself does not allow current to flow into or out of the neuron.
True
When atoms or molecules flow from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration, they are said to be moving up their concentration gradient.
False
Selective permeability allows all substances to pass through a membrane.
False
The sodium-potassium pump uses significant metabolic energy to continuously push sodium ions out of a neuron while pulling potassium ions in, in a ratio of 3 sodiums out for 2 potassiums in.
True
Graded potentials on the neural cell membrane can add up in analog fashion to trigger an action potential in the axon.
True
Voltage-gated channels are activated by a change in membrane potential.
True
Action potentials are graded.
False
Action potentials all look alike (have the same amplitude and waveform) and act like digital coding in the nervous system.
True
Hyperpolarization leads to generation of an action potential.
False
Hyperpolarization leaves a cell less negative inside.
False
The sodium-potassium pump is essential in maintaining the resting potential of a neuron.
True
Depolarization of the neuron cell membrane to its threshold value must occur before an action potential can be generated.
True
Graded potentials are "all or none".
False
- 40 mV is the approximate value of the threshold potential needed to trigger an action potential.
True
The normal neuron resting potential is about:
- 65 mV
When a neuron cell membrane is at its resting potential it is said to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium.
True
A voltage gated channel is not sensitive to the membrane potential.
False
The sodium-potassium pump pushes potassium ions out and pulls sodium ions in through the neuron cell membrane.
False
Sodium can pass freely both into and out of the neuron through non-voltage gated channels.
False
New action potentials can easily be generated during the absolute refractory phase.
False
Ligand gated ion channels are also know as ionotropic receptors.
True
Ionotropic receptors activate second messengers.
False
Exocytosis is a postsynaptic process.
False
Metabatropic receptors act directly as ion channels.
False
Competitive ligands:
Bind to the endogenous ligand site
Neuromodulators bind to a non-competitive site on the receptor
True
Non-competitive neuromodulators can only prevent activation of the receptor, not activate it
False
An agonist initiates the normal effects of a neural transmitter
True
Clearing neurotransmitter from a synapse after activation is not necessary for subsequent transmission at that synapse
False
The therapeutic index:
Is the separation between the effective dose and a toxic dose
Antipsychotic drugs, also called neuroleptics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and loxapine all act how?
As selective antagonists of dopamine (D2) receptors
Benzodiazepines reduce anxiety by enhancing the activity of GABA
True
Barbiturates, alcohol and benzodiazepines are examples of what category of drug?
Anxiolytics or depressants
We no longer use barbiturates to treat anxiety because:
Their dose-response index is too narrow
Amphetamines act to depress synaptic activity
False
One of the two ways amphetamines act at a synapse is by enhancing the reuptake of catecholamines in the presynaptic terminal.
False
Neuropeptides are short strings of amino acids
True
Cyclic AMP is a second messenger
True
Transmitter reuptake at a synapse:
Saves a cell energy because less new transmitter has to be made
Transmitter reuptake or degradation is essential for rapid cycling of many kinds of synapse.
True
Glutamate is the most abundant of all neurotransmitters
True
GABA receptors are mostly excitatory
False
Most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ionotropic
True
If a drug is present in the body in a form that is able to interact with physiological mechanisms, this is called:
Bioavailable
Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the bloodstream so that they can act on distant targets within the body
True
A cell that releases a signaling substance that feeds back upon the releasing cell is called an autocrine cell.
True
Paracrine cells communicate by emitting substances that diffuse to distant target cells through the extracellular space.
False
Pheromones are chemical signals released outside of the body to influence the behavior of members of other species
False
Neuroendocrine cells blend neuronal and endocrine mechanisms.
True
Amine hormones are made up of strings of many amino acids.
False
Steroid hormones are derived from:
Cholesterol
Estrogens are in the steroid class of hormones.
True
One of the two hormones that act through the posterior pituitary is:
Oxytocin
The specificity of a hormone is determined largely by:
Selectivity of receptors found only on target cells
The milk letdown response in human females who are nursing is triggered by prolactin.
False
Releasing hormones are produced by neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus.
True
The hypothalamus reacts only to other hormones that may be in circulation and not to neural stimulation.
False
Tropic hormones are produced in the posterior pituitary.
False
Releasing hormones trigger the release of tropic hormones.
True
Follicle-stimulating hormone is an example of a releasing hormone.
False
Adrenocortical hormone controls the production of hormones in the
Adrenal Cortex
Milk production is controlled by what hormone?
Prolactin
Somatotropin is another name for what kind of hormone?
Growth Hormone
Gonadotropin selectively stimulates the cells of the male and female gonads to produce sex steroids and gametes.
True
The neural tube arises from opening up of the neural groove in the embryonic differentiation process.
False
Rhombencephalon is another name for:
the hindbrain
Neurons, but not glial cells are derived from the ventricular zone.
False
Zygotes (fertilized egg) but not the germ cells (unfertilized egg and sperm) have 46 chromosomes, like all other human somatic cells.
True
The same embryonic layer that gives rise to the skin also gives rise to the nervous system.
True
The structure and function of every cell in C. elegans is determined completely by its mitotic lineage.
True
In vertebrates, unlike in much simpler non-vertebrates, the path of development importantly includes cell to cell interactions.
True
Neural stem cells divide to eventually produce neurons, but are not neurons themselves.
True
During development, cells move and migrate in a totally haphazard manner.
False
Radial glial cells play a critical role in guiding neural cell migration.
True
A protein found on the surface of a cell that guides cell migration is:
cell adhesion molecule
The process by which one set of cells influences the fate of neighboring cells, usually by secreting a chemical factor that changes gene expression in the target cell is called:
Induction
Growth cones are found at the tips of growing axons and dendrites.
True
Filopodia are found at the dendritic or axonal base of growth cones.
False
Naturally occurring cell death is called:
Apoptosis
Diablo is a mitochondrial protein that can inhibit the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins.
True
In apoptosis, caspases invade the cell from outside the cell and destroy cellular proteins.
False
Neurotrophic factors act like they "feed" neurons to help them survive during development.
True
Glial cells called Schwann cells wrap neurons in myelin during development.
True
A newborn has approximately the same density of synaptic connections as a two year old.
False
Sensory receptor cells convert or transduce energy into neural signals.
true
Sensory receptors found in the skin include which of the following:
Merkel's Disc
Rufini's ending is located in what layer of the skin?
Hypodermis
Labeled lines represents the idea that particular axonal nerve tracts are selective for distinctive sensory experiences (vision, auditory, touch etc).
True
Energy of any particular kind (sound, light, heat) can be conducted directly to the brain without neural transformation.
False
Each type of sensory receptor has a distinct pathway to a distinct area of the brain.
True
Free nerve endings signal which of the following sensations?
Pain
Rufini's Ending signals "Temperature".
False
Nociceptors respond to unpleasant or noxious stimulation.
True
Vanilloid is a noxious stimulus.
True
TRPV1 is a receptor that is sensitive to capsaicin, the chemical that makes chili peppers taste hot.
True
Mice or other animals that lack the TRPV1 receptor are hypersensitive to heat.
False
The TRP2 receptor uses small, unmyelinated nerve fibers to transmit slower signals to the brain.
False
The bird version of the TRPV1 receptor is sensitive to capsaicin the same as in mammals.
False
To be faster conducting, nerve fibers must use which of the following strategies?
Myelination
Phasic receptors adapt rapidly and give a transient response.
True
Cortical somatosensory cells have receptive fields in the skin.
True
Receptive fields have uniform response properties, not varying across a spatial area.
False
The body's surface is represented in a nearly random cortical map.
False
The M in CMR1 stands for Menthol.
True
Hair cells project their stereocilia into which membrane?
Tectorial
Vibrational displacement of which membrane is responsible for exciting hair cells?
Basilar
Outer hair cells are responsible for giving rise to the perception of sound.
False
Complex sounds are made up of many frequencies.
True
When stereocilia bend, tip links open ion channels.
True
The ion channels in the hair cell stereocilia are selective for potassium ions only.
False
The apex of the basilar membrane is where high frequency sounds are transduced.
False
Sound frequency is encoded by which of the following mechanisms?
Place coding
Very low frequency sounds are easy to locate.
False
One cue used for locating sounds on the horizontal plane is:
Latency Differences
Very loud sounds can be ototoxic and destroy neural mechanisms.
True
Semicircular canals are similar in fish and mammals
True
The vestibular system does not use hair cells to sense position change or acceleration.
False
Papillae contain taste buds.
True
The human tongue discriminates only four basic tastes.
False
Taste and olfaction must work together to allow humans to discriminate as many as 5000 flavors.
True
If humans have about 10 million olfactory receptor cells, how many does a bloodhound have?
200 million
Which of the following does not pass through the thalamus on the way to the cortex?
Olfactory neural pathways
Of the 1000 olfactory receptor genes in humans, about how many are fully functional?
350
Olfactory transduction uses a G-protein, cyclic AMP, second messenger system.
True
When photoreceptors adjust their sensitivity to match the ambient illumination, this is called:
Adaptation
Retinal photoreceptors point towards the back to the eye.
True
The membrane potential of photoreceptors changes in what way when light is absorbed by their photopigment:
it hyperpolarizes
There are many more cones than rods in the retina.
False
Rods are for night vision.
True
Which of the following is true of retinal ganglion cells:
the generate action potentials
Which of the following is true of the scotopic system?
it has only rod receptors
Amarcrine and horizontal cells provide lateral processing in the retina.
True
Which of the following is true for cone photoreceptors?
there are three types
The name for the rod photopigment is rhodopsin.
True
After leaving the eye, most fibers of the optic nerve travel first to:
the lateral geniculate nucleus
An on-center ganglion cell receptive field shows maximum stimulation when the surround is illuminated.
False
Visual receptive fields for cortical neurons are constructed by combining inputs from more simple retinal ganglion and lateral geniculate nucleus cells.
True
Retinal ganglion cells have complex receptive field responses compared to cortical neurons.
False
Receptive fields enhance edges.
True
Fourier analysis breaks a visual scene down by the spatial frequencies in the scene.
True
Sharp edges require low spatial frequencies in a visual scene
False
Circular receptive fields at lower levels of the visual system can be combined to produce rod-shaped receptive fields at higher levels in the visual system.
True
Receptive fields for cortical neurons can be:
sensitive to the orientation of a line, simple or complex, built up from inputs from simpler receptive fields (all of the above)
Square waves contain many spatial frequencies.
True
Which of the following is not one of the four major stages of reproductive behavior:
Refractory period
A durable and exclusive relationship between a male and a female of any species is called:
pair bond
Another name for sperm and ova or eggs is:
gamete
When a female rat adopts a stereotyped posture for mating this is called:
lordosis
An adult female rat with ovaries removed will show neither proceptive nor receptive behavior.
True
Lesions or destruction of the medial preoptic area (mPOA) abolish male copulatory behavior in many species.
True
Human sexual behavior was well studied prior to Alfred Kinsey's extensive surveys on sexual practices in the 1940's.
False
In female rats, lordosis is permanently abolished by administering testosterone during the critical period.
True
The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) is much smaller in males than in females.
False
When males and females show marked differences in appearance (or behavior), this is called:
Sexual dimorphism
The idea or theory that a specific pattern of autonomic arousal leads to a particular emotional experience is attributed to:
James and Lange
There is evidence that humans can innately recognize the meaning of a range of emotional facial expressions.
True
Charles Darwin thought that human facial expressions revealed thoughts and intentions....
more truly than do words
Often the same brain regions seem to be involved in more than one emotion.
True
Similar to stimulation of some specific sub-cortical regions, stimulation of cerebral cortical regions usually also provides positive reinforcement.
False
The components of the brain that make up the limbic system are thought to underlie emotional response.
True
The "low road" of the fear circuit from the thalamus goes to the sensory cortex and hippocampus.
False
The "high road" of the fear circuit takes more time than the low road to produce a response.
True
The amygdala is an important part of the fear circuit.
True
The fear response cannot be learned or conditioned.
False
The formation of new procedural memories was severely inhibited in patient HM.
False
Non-declarative memory can be tested readily in animals.
True
Which is a short definition of declarative memory?
Things you know that you can tell others
Retrograde amnesia is the kind that does not allow you to form new memories.
False
Episodic memory and semantic memory are both declarative.
True
A buffer that holds memories available for ready access during the performance of a task is:
working memory
The serial position curve shows that items in the middle of a list are remembered as well as items at either end.
False
Declarative memories are encoded, consolidated and retrieved from the temporal lobe only.
False
The "delayed non-matching to sample task" is a way of testing procedural memory in monkeys.
False
Autobiographical memory is:
Episodic
Autobiographic and semantic memories are stored in different locations in the brain.
True
The hippocampus of London cab drivers has been found to be enlarged as a result of spatial map learning compared to non-cab drivers.
True
Experiments with brain lesions to specific areas in rats show that spatial location requires a functioning Hippocampus.
True
The sea slug Aplysia shows a form of long term learning that depends on modified synaptic activity.
True
Donald Hebb proposed in 1949 that when a presynaptic neuron repeatedly activates a postsynaptic neuron the strengthened connection between them constitutes learning.
True
Long term potentiation does not involve synaptic change.
False
One form of long term potentiation occurring in hippocampal synapses involves NMDA and AMPA receptors in the same synapse.
True
In the eye-blink reflex response to a puff of air, the primary pathway involves the Trigeminal nucleus communicating directly with the cranial motor nucleus.
True
In conditioning the eye-blink reflex, the cerebellum bypasses the cranial motor nucleus.
False
Adult neurogenesis occurs primarily in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.
True
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
STUDY GUIDE