History Unit 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (49)
believed all men are born equal w/ an innate natural morality
believe that an effective government should have checks and balances
argued for common sense, religious toleration and freedom of thought
Said people give up their freedom to a ruler who guranteed peace and order
viewed the primitive man superior to civilized men
what idea did Beccaria contibute to the United States Bill of Rights
Protect rights of the accused
The renewed interest in non-Church matters which arose in 14th century Italy was called the
why did Enlightenment thinkers first begin to question the old regimes?
Objection to luxuries and privileges of the upper class
Where did the Enlightment mainly take place?
Britain and France
Define "Rule of Law"
No one, including the king, is above the law
What document established the British Parliament?
What did the absolute monarchs do in Europe?
Consolidated the power and regulated economies
Which document reestablished Parliamentary control of England in 1628?
Petition of Rights
What idea did the colonists take from John Locke?
Life, Liberty, & Property
How did the English Bill of Rights change the balance of power in the British government?
The King couldn't pass any laws without consent of Parliament
How did the British gain political rights?
Gradually over hundreds of years
What is the main idea of Rousseau's social contract?
a society where people have a contract with one another
The European intellectial movement emphasizes the resposibility of government to protect people's natural rights was called the
The phrase "natural rights" is original to and central to the writings of which philosopher?
The Declaration of Independence expresses the philosophy that the power of government comes from
Which statement BEST summarizes the government in the social contract
Its basis is the rights and responsibilities of people
Which principle is DIRECTLY reflected in the division of a government into three branches?
separation of power
The ideas of Locke and Rousseau influence Simon Bolivar in his commitment to
fight for democratic revolution in Latin America
Which of the following rights is in the US Bill of Rights comes from the Magna Carta?
due process of law
Which statement BEST summarizes the idea of representative government as it was established in the English Bill of Rights?
laws are made and carried out by a group that acts for the people
English colonists in America expected to have a representative government in the colonies because
there was a tradition of representative government in England
The idea that governments get their power from the people they govern is called
The American Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen BOTH
emphasize the rights of the individual
The term "unalienable rights" in the American Declaration of Independence refers to rights that
a government cannot take away
A key issue that sparked the colonists to declare their independence from England was
concern for individual rights
which statement BEST describes the context in which the Declaration of Independence was issued?
War broke out and then the Declaration of Independence was issued
John Adams said that even before the War for Independence began, "The revolution was in the hearts and minds of the people." What is the best way to paraphrase Adam's meaning?
The American Revilution was rooted in the people's beliefs
Which Document was written before all the others?
Declaration of Independence
What is ONE reason that the American Revolution resulted in a stable democracy, while other revolutions did not?
The Articles of the Confederation provided a period of transition from British rule
What feature was shared by the major revolutionary movements of the late 1700s and early 1800s?
All maintained that government's power comes from the people
Which info BEST fits in the empty box?
What basic principle of American government is based in part on this concept?
The Rule of Law
James Madison is MOST CLOSELY associated with what document?
The Constitution of the United States
An implied agreement that the citizens will give up some rights to the government in exchange for security and order is called a
Which Enlightenment philosophy was used to justify the American colonies' declaration of independence from England?
John Locke's concept of a social contract between people and government
The American Declaration of Independene and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen share which concept?
Which idea is common to the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Declaration of Independence?
The right to a jury trial
Which right is found in the Fifth Amendment of the U.S. Bill of Rights comes from a provision in the Magna Carta?
the right to due process of law
Before _ developed the jury trial, feudal lords determined the guilt or innocence of an accused person without benefit of the due process of law
England's legal system built on precedents determined by the decisions of royal justices and became known as _
England's monarchy began to lose its power when King John was forced by be English nobles to sign the _
European monarchs claimed that their authority to rule was given to them by _ and that any opposition to them was a sin.
By ousting King James II and placing William and Mary on the throne, Parliament established its right to limit the power of the English monarchy, an event which became known as the _
What idea is common to the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Declaration of Independence?
That there should be limits on the powers of monarchies