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FTCE PreK-3 Science
Terms in this set (303)
The volcano would be an example of a chemical reaction causing.
The focus is on moving students from a generalized principle to specific instances. The process of testing generalized assumptions, applying them, and exploring the relationships between, specific elements is stressed.
Helps students establish facts, determine relevant questions, and develop ways to pursue these questions and build explanations. Students develop and support their own hypotheses.
This strategy relies heavily on discussion and sharing among participants. Students develop social skills, and also organizational skills.
The Scientific Method
Posing a Question
Forming a Hypothesis
Conducting the Experiment
Observing and Recording Data
Drawing a Conclusion
What are material safety data sheets MSDS?
Forms that include information on substances such as physical data (melting point, boiling point and so on), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective gear, and spill/leak procedures.
Curriculum Based Assessment
Assessment of an individual's performance of objectives within a curriculum such as reading. math or science program.
Momentary Time Sampling
Technique used for measuring behaviors of a group of individuals or several behaviors of the same individual.
Multiple Baseline Design
Used to test the effectiveness of an intervention in the performance of a skill or to determine if the intervention accounted for the observed changes in a target behavior.
Good scientific investigation should...
Seek to provide a number of plausible hypotheses for any given phenomenon and then identify the correct hypothesis as established by experimental results.
A theory is...
A hypothesis that is tested repeatedly by different scientists and yields the same results.
Emphasizes gathering quantitative data on certain specific behaviors.
A description of behaviors and how they will be recorded. The key idea is to delimit the range of behaviors that are observed.
Potential Problems that can occur during the observation include:
Remaining vigilant, reactivity, reliability, sampling
Scientists are expected to show good conduct in their scientific pursuits. Conduct here refers to...
All aspects of scientific activity including experimentation, testing, education, data evaluation, data analysis, data storage, peer review, government funding, staff, and so on.
Two types of graphs most commonly used
line graph and bar graph (histogram)
The summary of the report
Tells exactly what is being studied
States the problem
Measure of length
Measure of volume
Measure of mass
Deca - (meter, liter, gram)
10x the base unit
1/10 the base unit
Hecto - (meter, liter, gram)
100x the base unit
Kilo - (meter, liter, gram)
1000x the base unit
1/100 the base unit
1/1000 the base unit
Used to measure various environmental factors including temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, ionic concentration, and pressure.
Biologists use spreadsheets to...
Organize, analyze, and display data.
Graphing calculators are another technology with many applications to biology. They can...
Be used to manipulate algebraic data and create graphs for analysis and observation.
a Belgian anatomist and physician whose dissections of the human body and descriptions helped correct misconceptions of science.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Known as the Father of Microscopy. In the 1650s, he began making tiny lenses that gave magnifications up to 300x. He was the first to see and describe bacteria, yeast, and the microscopic life found in water.
a Renowned inventor, natural philosopher, astronomer, experimenter, and cell biologist and virtuoso. Remembered mainly for Hooke's Law, an equation describing elasticity.
Carl von Linnaeus
Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist. Known for his contributions in ecology and taxonomy. Famous for his binomial system of nomenclature, in which each living organism has two names, a genus and a species name.
Discovered the role of microorganisms in the cause of disease, invented the process known as pasteurization, and created the rabies vaccine. Took Louis Pasteur's observations one step further by formulating the hypothesis that specific diseases were caused by specific pathogens.
German botanist, famous for his cell theory and concluded that the cell is the common structural unit of plants.
James Cook and Francis Crick
Discovered the structure of a DNA molecule to be a double helix.
A theory of ethics that prescribes the quantitative maximization of good consequences for a population. Is a form of consequentialism.
Theory proposed by Immanuel Kant, which ascribes intrinsic value to rational beings, and is the philosophical foundation of contemporary human rights.
Social Contract Theory
A view of the ancient Greeks that states that a person's moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon an agreement among people to form society.
Guiding Principles of Scientific Ethics
How can science be related to all subjects?
Through the use of interactive lessons that incorporate problem-solving, communication, and technology.
Nature induced hazards
Floods, landslides, avalanches, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts, and disease.
How have humans influenced natural disasters?
Destructive land-use, such as mining have induced landslides, and avalanches, also climate change and waste contamination.
An increase in Earth's average temperature, resulting as least in part from the burning of fuels by humans.
Human contamination due to...
Hazardous waste disposal
Popular science-based consumer products
GMO foods, pharmaceuticals, plastics, nylon, cosmetics, household cleaning products, color additives.
Sources of alternative energy
Wind, water, solar, nuclear, geothermal, biomass
What is responsible for the shifting of tectonic plates on the Earth's crust?
The slow convection of rocks in the mantle.
Within the rock cycle, what is formed when magma escapes from the mantle as lava during volcanic eruption?
When fluid/liquid sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rocks
Three Types of Subdivision of Rocks
Sedimentary, Igneous, Metamorphic
When sediments are converted to sedimentary rock.
Classified according to their texture, their composition, and the way they are formed.
Molten rock that pours out onto the Earth's surface.
Rocks that cool rapidly before any crystals can form and have glassy texture like obsidian.
Coarse grained glass
Formed by high temperature and great pressures. Classified into two groups: foliated (leaflike) and unfoliated.
The process by which rocks undergo changes.
Minerals or rock deposits that can be mined for profit
Natural, nonliving solids with a definite chemical composition and crystalline structure.
Earth materials made of one or more minerals.
Minerals must adhere to five criteria:
Be non-living, be formed in nature, be solid in form, have atoms that form a crystalline pattern, have a chemical composition fixed within narrow limits.
Soils are composed of particles of sand, clay and various minerals, tiny living organisms, and humus plus the decayed remains of plants and animals. Soils are divided into three classes according to their texture:
Sandy soils, clay soils, loamy soils
Natural mountain building
Produced by the folding of rock layers during their formation.
Created when plate movement produces tension forces instead of compression forces.
Formed as magma tries to push up through the crust but fails to break the surface.
Created in association with a broad arching of the crust.
The movement of magma through the crust as well as its emergence as lava onto Earth's surface.
Associated with quiet eruptions
Cinder cone volcanoes
Associated with explosive eruptions as lava is hurled high into the air in a spray of droplets of various sizes.
Built by both lava flow and layers of ash and cinders.
Produced by the folding of rock layers.
Fractures in the earth's crust
A large mass of ice that moves or flows over the land in response to gravity.
The inclusion and transportation of surface materials by another moveable material (usually water, wind or ice).
The grinding motion of bedrock
The breaking down of rocks at or near Earth's surface.
The study of the relationship between motion and the forces affecting motion. Force causes motion
Gives an object reluctance to change its current state of motion. It is also the measure of an objects resistance to acceleration.
Mass times acceleration due to gravity
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
An object on rest will stay in rest, and an object in motion will stay in motion. aka. the law of inertia.
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
If a net force acts on an object, it will cause the acceleration of the object. The relationship between force and motion is: force equals mass times acceleration (F=ma).
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Surfaces that touch each other will have a certain resistance to motion
Describe the force of friction of two surfaces that are in contact but do not have any motion relative to each other, such as a block sitting on an inclined plane.
When an object moves in a circular path, a force must be directed toward the center of the circle to keep the motion going. This is the constraining force.
Inertia and circular motion
Centripetal force is provided, for example by the high banking of a curved road and by friction between a vehicle's wheels and the road.
Forces on an object at rest
An object will not move unless the force is strong enough to move the mass. The formula F=m/a is shorthand for force equals mass over acceleration.
This is done on an object when unapplied force moves through a distance.
This is the work done divided by the amount of time that it took to do it. Power = work/time
Law of conservation of energy
States that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
States that when two objects collide in an isolated system, the total momentum of the two objects before the collision is equal to the total momentum of the two objects after the collision.
Acceleration along a circle, a circular path, or a circular orbit.
Occurs when an object moves back and forth in a regular motion. i.e. a pendulum
The inner planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars
The outer planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Its surface has craters and rocks. Atmosphere composed of hydrogen, helium, and sodium. Named after the Roman Messenger of God.
Has a slow rotation compared to Earth
Rotates in opposite directions as other planets called retrograde
The surface is covered by cloud cover
Has yellow appearance due to sulfuric acid droplets
Named after the Roman goddess of love
70% covered by water
Gravity Different temperatures allow for solids, liquids and gas
Composed mainly of oxygen and nitrogen
Surface contains craters, active and extinct volcanoes, and deep fracture valleys. Iron oxide makes the surface rust colored and skies pink. Has two satellites. Named after the Roman God of War.
Has 16 moons
Atmosphere: hydrogen, helium, methane, and ammonia
White bands of clouds
Has large red spot thought to be a hurricane-type cloud.
Strong magnetic field
Second largest planet
Has rings of ice, rock, and dust particles circling it
Atmosphere: hydrogen, helium, methane, and ammonia
Has more then 20 satellites
Named after the Roman God of Agriculture
Third largest planet
Has retrograde evolution
Is a gas planet
Has 10 dark rings and 15 satellites
Atmosphere: hydrogen, helium, methane
Named after the Greek God of the Heavens
Atmosphere: hydrogen, helium, methane,
Three rings and 2 satellites
Named after the Roman sea god because it's the same color as the seas
Named after the Roman God of the Underworld
Rocky fragments thought to be the remains of the birth of the solar system that never formed into planets.
Returns to the skies near Earth every 75 to 76 years
masses of frozen gases, cosmic dust, and small rocky particles.
Composed of particles of rock and metal of various sizes.
Burning meteoroid falling through Earth's atmosphere.
Meteors that strike Earth's surface.
The wind belts in each hemisphere consist of convection cells that encircle Earth like belts. The three major wind belts are:
Tradewinds, Prevailing westerlies, polar easterlies.
Sea breezes and land breezes
Winds caused by local temperature changes
Huge wind systems that cover large geographic areas and that reverse direction seasonally.
White and feathery, high in the sky
Thick, white and fluffy
Layers of clouds that cover most of the sky
Heavy, dark clouds that represent thunderstorm clouds
Air temperature at which water vapor begins to condense
The actual amount of water vapor in a certain volume of air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor this air could hold at a given temperature.
A brief local storm produced by the rapid upward movement of warm, moist air within a cumulonimbus cloud.
A severe storm with swirling winds that may reach speeds of hundreds of kilometers per hour.
A swirling, funnel-shaped cloud that extends downward and touches a body of water.
Storms that develop when warm, most air carried by trade winds rotate around a low-pressure "eye".
Storm with strong winds, blowing snow, and frigid temperatures.
Consists of falling rain that freezes when it strikes the ground, covering everything with a layer of ice.
Nearest star to the Earth and it produces solar energy
the inner portion of the sun where fusion takes place
The surface of the sun that produces sunspots, which are cool, dark areas that can be seen on its surface.
Hydrogen gas causes this portion to be red in color. Also found here are solar flares (sudden brightness of the chromosome) and solar prominences (gases that shoot outward from the chromosphere).
The transparent area of the sun visible only during a total eclipse.
Energy traveling from the sun that radiates into space.
Produces excited protons and electrons that shoot outward from the chromosphere at great speeds, reaching Earth.
First unmanned mission
US mission. First to use the gravitational pull of one planet to reacher another.
Deep Space 1
US mission tested 12 advanced technologies to lower the cost and risk of future space travel.
Took pictures of and collected info on Venus to help understand the geological structure of that planet.
Soviet Union launched what was the first artificial satellite into space. this ignited the space race that strengthened the cold war.
Soviet Union scientists sent this into space along with the first live space traveler, a dog named Laika.
Voyager 1 and 2
Designed to explore the outer planets and interstellar space. Transmitted info about the gas giants.
The explosion of this spaceship occurred on the tenth mission of this space shuttle.
First lunar landing that also brought the first man on the moon.
Spaceship mission to gather info and pictures from the moon. it was the 3rd manned mission.
A group or patterns of stars
Vast collections of stars
a Variable radio source that emits signals in very short, regular bursts; it is believed to be a rotation neutron star.
An object that photographs like a star. Believed to be the active core of a very distant galaxy.
An object that has collapsed to such a degree that light cannot escape for its surface; that light is trapped by the intense gravitational field.
The measurement or acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon by a recording device that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object. Examples include: an aircraft taking pictures, Earth observation and weather satellites, monitoring a fetus in the womb through ultrasound, a space probe.
The tilt of the Earth's axis
creates the Earth's seasons
The summer solstice
Occurs when the North Pole is tilted toward the sun on June 21 or 22
The winter solstice
occurs when the South Pole is tilted toward the sun on Dec 21 or 22
Spring, or Vernal, Equinox
Occurs on March 20 or 21, when the direct energy from the sun falls on the equator, providing equal day and night hours in both hemispheres.
the Autumnal Equinox
Occurs on September 22 or 23, providing equal day and night hours in both hemispheres.
Occurs when the moon's non-illuminated side is facing the Earth i.s. fully darkened
When the moon appears to be less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight
One-half of the moon appears to be illuminated by direct sunlight during this time. i.e. half darkened on left side but is increasing to full moon
In this phase, the moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. i.e. 3/4 brightened and still brightening to full moon
Occurs when the moon's illuminated side is facing Earth. i.e. maximum illumination
When the moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. i.e. 3/4 brightened but decreasing after full moon
One-half of the moon appears to be illuminated by direct sunlight in this phase,
During this phase, the moon appears to be less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight and is decreasing to new moon
Phases of Matter
Identified by the matter's shape and volume. Characterized as solids, liquids and gases.
The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element.
A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances.
the smallest particle of substance that can exist independently and has all of the properties of that substance.
Made of two or more elements that have been chemically combined.
Made up of one kind of particle
Formed during a chemical change
Broken down only by chemical changes
Properties are different from their parts
Have a specific amount of each ingredient
A formula that shows the element of a chemical compound. It is a shorthand way of showing what is in a compound by using symbols and subscripts.
Any combination of two or more substances in which the substances keep their own properties.
Not formed by chemical change
Can be separated by physical changes
Properties are the same as their parts
Do not have a definite amount of each ingredient
Everything in the world is made up of this. It takes up space and has mass and volume.
The measure of the Earths pull of gravity on an object.
Units of weight
Pound in English and the Kilogram in Metric measure.
The amount of cubic space that an object occupies.
The mass of a substance contained per unit of volume. To find an objects density, measure an objects mass and volume, then divide the mass by the volume
The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.
Can be observed without changing the identity of a substance
Describes the ability of a substance to be changed into new substances.
A change that does not produce a new substance.
Chemical Change (aka Chemical Reaction)
Changes the inherent properties of a substance.
The ability to cause change in matter
The change in phase from liquid to gas
The change in phase from solid to liquid
Laws of Thermodynamics
The relationships between heat, forms of energy and work (mechanical, electrical, and so on)
First Law of Thermodynamics
The change in heat energy supplied to a system is equal to the sum of the change in the internal energy and the change in work done by the system against internal forces. DQ = DU + DW
Second Law of Thermodynamics
No machine is 100% efficient
Heat cannot spontaneously pass from a colder to hotter object
Arrow of Time
Certain events have a preferred direction
The measure of how much energy or heat is available for work.
The total energy of objects created by the vibration and movement of atoms and molecules
aka sound energy, is the movement of energy through an object in waves.
The energy of electromagnetic waves. i.e. light
The movement of electrical charges in an electromagnetic field.
The energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules
The potential and kinetic energy of a mechanical system. i.e. car engines, body parts in motion
The energy present in the nucleus of atoms.
Law of the Conservation of Energy
States that energy is neither created nor destroyed
The interactions of substances that result in chemical changes and changes in energy.
Nuclear reactions (aka atomic reactions)
Reactions that change the composition, energy or structure of atomic nuclei.
the splitting of nuclei
the joining of nuclei
Simple machines include
inclined plane, lever, wheel and axle, pulley
Are two or more simple machines working together.
The result of regulatory machines that help maintain an organism's internal environment within tolerable limits.
Organisms that are able to respond to basic stimuli such as the presence of light, heat or food.
Cell surface receptors
Changes in environment are typically sensed with this.
These organisms may respond to such stimuli by making changes in internal biochemical pathways or initiating reproduction
Complex system used to detect and respond to stimuli.
The nervous system, sensory organs and muscle tissue will...
Allow animals to sense and quickly respond to changes in their environment.
Made up of nucleotides, consists of a sugar/phosphate backbone that is covalently bonded, is in the shape of a double helix and looks like a twisted ladder.
The process that allows the DNA code to be read and carried out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm in the form of RNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Copies the code from DNA in the nucleus and takes it to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Free floating in the cytoplasm. Its job is to carry and position amino acids for assembly on the ribosome.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Found in the ribosomes. They make a place for the proteins to be made.
The study of organisms
A group of the same species in a specific area
A group of populations residing in the same area.
Communities that are ecologically similar in regards to temperature, rainfall, and the species that live there.
Coral habitat; includes the epipelagic, pelagic and benthic zones.
Located around the equator, and have abundant, diverse species of plants and animals.
Plants include shrubs and grasses. Is a transitional biome
Plant species include xerophytes, succulents. Animals include lizards, snakes and small mammals and common animals
An orderly process of replacing a community that has been damaged or has begun where no life previously existed.
Occurs after a community has been totally wiped out by a natural disaster or in a place where life never existed before, as in a flooded area.
Takes place in communities that were once flourishing but were disturbed by some force, either human or natural, but not totally stripped.
A community that is established and flourishing.
This phase allows for the assembly of mRNA and occurs in the nucleus where the DNA is found. The DNA slits open and the mRNA reads the code and transcribes the sequence onto a single strand of mRNA.
The assembly of the amino acids to build the protein and occurs on the cytoplasm
Can be errors in replication or spontaneous rearrangement of one or more segments by factors like radioactivity, drugs, or chemicals.
The science of classification
The grouping of items according to their similarities.
Defined by the ability to successfully reproduce with members of their own kind
Prokaryotic, single-celled organisms that lack cell nuclei.
All bacteria reproduce through
binary fission (asexual reproduction)
Plants and animals
Are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms.
Converting sunlight into energy
Are eukaryotic, mostly cellular organisms. Are heterotrophs, obtaining nutrients from other organisms. Most obtain nutrients by digesting and absorbing nutrients from dead organisms.
Eukaryotic, single-celled organisms. Most are heterotrophic; obtaining nutrients by ingesting small molecules and cells and digesting them in vacuoles.
Occurs when a predator eats its prey
Involves a predator that lives on its host
Occurs when two or more species in a community use the same resources.
Occurs when two species live close together
Occurs when one species benefits from the other.
Occurs when both species benefit from the other.
Describes the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem
A group of individuals of one species that live in the same general area.
Living things in an ecosystem: plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, etc.
Non-living aspects of an ecosystem: soil, quality, rainfall, temperature, etc.
Make up CELLS which make up TISSUES. Tissues make up ORGANS and gross of organs make up ORGAN SYSTEMS.
Characteristics between living and non-living things
Living things are made up of cells
Living things must adapt to environmental changes or perish
Living things carry out metabolic processes
The common element in all organic life
This system functions for support. Vertebrates have an endoskeleton, with muscles attached to bones.
Its function is movement
The neuron is the basic unit of this system. it consists of an axon, which carries impulses away from the cell body
The function is to break down food and absorb it into the bloodstream.
This system functions in the gas exchange of oxygen (needed) and carbon dioxide (waste). It delivers oxygen to the bloodstream and picks up carbon dioxide for release out of the body.
This system's function is to carry oxygenated blooded nutrients to all cells of the body and return carbon dioxide waste to be expelled from the lungs.
This process takes in oxygen and gives off waste gases.
Respiration without oxygen
The Father of Genetics
Traits or characteristics that come in several forms.
Mendel's three laws of genetics
Law of dominance, Law of segregation, Law of independent assortment
Having two of the same genes
Having one dominant and one recessive gene
The genes an organ has
how the trait is expressed in an organism
Neither gene masks the other, so a new phenotype is formed
A form of dominance in which the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed thereby resulting in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive.
Sperm is stored in...
The seminiferous tubules in the testes
Eggs are stored in...
The division of somatic cells
The division of sex cells (egg and sperm)
Strands of coiled DNA and associated proteins
Sex cell or germ cell; eggs and sperm
Bacteria reproduce by...
Systematic observation emphasizes
Gathering quantitative data on certain specific behaviors
One gene is repeated
One segment of the sequence is flipped around
A gene is left out
Insertion or Translocation (DNA)
A segment from another place on the DNA is inserted in the wrong place
A piece is lost
This occurs during meiosis when chromosomes fail to separate properly.
is energy produced by moving electrons.
is the force of a magnet -- push or pull.
is created by moving bodies.
Type of wave energy
Result of split to nucleus of an atom
Produced by moving electrons
Converted to kinetic energy and also produces heat in the human body.
pH of gastric acid
a pH of 1
pH of human skin
a pH of 5.5
pH of urine
a pH of 6
pH of pancreatic secretions
a pH of 8.1
Produces chemicals that help with digestion, metabolism, and other functions
Creates living things that are similar to the parents
The Earth's composition
Comprised of three layers. The core is the innermost layer. It is made up of solid iron and nickel and is about 7,000 kilometers in diameter. The mantle is the semi-molten layer which separates the crust and the core. It is about 3,000 kilometers thick. The crust is 5 to 40 kilometers thick and is the outermost layer. It consists of bedrock overlaid with mineral and/or organic sediments.
is often used to investigate current problems. It may involve designing and conducting investigations that lead to the identification of issues to analyze. Inquiry is used to examine single topics or in integrated sciences. The students will have to gather information about the field and interpret it. They might design experiments based on soil, water, rainfall etc.
Five stages of critical reflection
Testing a Hypothesis
More careful observation
Finding a tentative explanation and an elaboration or firmer explanation
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