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Contemporary Families Exam 2
Terms in this set (60)
Which statement best defines androgynous love?
Both partners express love, sex, and intimacy
Which statement about feminized love is correct?
It implies that women are responsible for emotional support
The limbic system is a part of the brain responsible for
The three elements of Sternberg's triangular theory of love are
passion, intimacy, and commitment
Which of Lee's love styles involves making a rational choice of a mate?
The goal of emotion-focused couples therapy is to ____________.
Increase positive emotions and decrease negative ones
The ability to be truly vulnerable and open with another person is referred to as
The frequency with which a person perceives threat in a relationship is referred to as
During an argument, helping your partner to understand why your perspective is right will help you to build a strong relationship
Sam and Linda have been married for 10 years. Both partners feel strong commitment to each other but no longer experience intimacy or physical passion. Their relationship is best described as
What is love?
-Scientists do NOT have one agreed-upon definition of love.
-Textbook definition of love: The subjective feeling of emotional connection with another person, often accompanied by intense desire to be near, care for, protect, or share one's life with that person.
A type of love that usually exists with newer relationships, where sexual excitement and intrusive thoughts of the person are common.
A type of love that usually exists in long-term relationships where sexual passion may have declined but intimacy, commitment, and a sense of security are high.
What do major theories say about love?
Explained through Sternberg, Lee's, Aron, and attachment theory
Sternberg's Triangular theory of love
3 Essential Components
Passion: "hot" component, constant thoughts about partner and sexual excitement, not enough to sustain a long-term relationship alone
Intimacy: "warm" component, mutual sharing, authenticity, vulnerability, like close friendship
Commitment: "cool" component, serious commitment to a specific partner, mutual agreement
Sternberg's Love Stories
Love stories: Sternberg's idea that we form templates in our childhood based on interactions in our families and exposure to media images of what characteristics should be present in ideal love relationships.
Lee's Love Styles
-John Lee's (1973) research concluded that there were 6 distinct love styles and that you could use the love styles present in a relationship to predict the health of the partnership
-Also sometimes referred to as "colors of love," but you do not need to memorize the colors
Aron and Aron's self-expansion theory of love
-Theory that true love stems from one's wish to expand one's self; each partner helps the other become a better version of the self they once were
-Similar to Sternberg's consummate love and Lee's agape love and idealized in Western cultures
-Also highly valued in Eastern cultures and thought to be related to spiritual maturity
-John Bowlby considered the "father of attachment theory"
-Harry Harlow realized that baby monkeys preferred contact comfort to being comforted by a feeding mother who provided no comfort
-Harlow also realized the baby monkey's used their cloth "mothers" as a secure base
-Helped to regulate down negative emotions
Helped to cope with stressors
-Research on Romanian orphans has led to the conclusion that there is a sensitive period for early attachment and that early attachment disruptions can be very difficult to remedy
Promoting a secure attachment in infancy
-Responding to infants' cries consistently and sensitively
-Responding to infants' needs (for food, comfort, etc.)
-Consistently and responsively responding to infants' bids for connection (eye contact, skin-to-skin contact, proximity-seeking behaviors)
-Helping young children to regulate their negative emotions during times of anxiety, stress, fear, etc.
Attachment theory (pt 2)
-People with secure attachment patterns have the greatest likelihood of relationships satisfaction and endurance throughout development
-People with an anxious attachment patterns tend to be clingy or can be emotionally unstable in relationships
-People with avoidant/dismissive styles tend to avoid getting too close in relationships and do not allow themselves to be vulnerable enough for close intimacy
What can people do to improve their love relationships?
Emotion-focused Couples therapy (EFCT):
-One of the most effective forms of couples therapy
-Helps couples try to improve their daily interactions but main focus is trying to help them to understand what is at the root of their conflicts to reveal their primary or core emotions
-Partners with anxious or preoccupied attachments may benefit most
-Goal is to help increase positive emotions between partners and decrease feelings of shame, fear, and anger
-Focuses on promoting empathy for the other partner's experience
1. Rather than complaining, make a clear concrete request. (Do not try to hint at it or beat around the bush, but do be kind.)
2. Do not bring up past issues during a disagreement. Also, avoid "always" and "never."
3. Respect your partner's point of view and attempt to empathize with it with compassion.
4. Don't jump to conclusions and assume you know what your partner is thinking. Also, don't expect your partner to be a mind reader.
5. Don't use insulting, hurtful, or disrespectful labels. Do not judge your partner's feelings.
6. Do not try to prove you are "right." Focus on solutions togther.
Ch 5: dating
early stage romantic excursions that serve as a foundation for building a potentially committed relationship
Ch 5: hooking up
causal sexual experiences with strangers or acquaintances without the expectation of any further contact after the fact
Ch 5: friends with benefits
engaging in sexual activities with friends or acq. without expecting the development of a committed partnership
Ch 5: anti-miscegenation laws
laws that outlaw interracial sex, dating and marriage
Ch 5: communal sharing
one of four elements of intimate relationships, characterized by being open and intimate with a partner
Ch 5: authority ranking
one of four elements of intimate relationships, characterized by deciding on power sharing and control issues
Ch 5: equality matching
one of four elements of intimate relationships, characterized by finding partners with similarities to oneself
Ch 5: market pricing
one of four elements of intimate relationships, characterized by a cost/benefit analysis of the worth of a specific partner
Ch 5: courtship
the process whereby people select each other as mates and decide to make a committed partnership with each other, such as in the case of marriage
Ch 5: anxious, preoccupied, ambivalent attachments
insecure attachments that lead people to fear abandonment, cling to partners, or alternatively want closeness and the distance
Ch 5: dismissing avoidant attachment
an insecure attachment style where people don't value intimacy with others and keep a cold distance in relationships.
Ch 5: fearful avoidant attachment
an insecure attachment style where people fear being hurt and so avoid intimacy altogether
Ch 5: disillusionment model
a model explaining that people often put on false fronts during dating relationships so that when they commit to a relationship, they become disillusioned upon finding flaws in their partners. They feel unhappy that the person has "changed"
Ch 5: lust
the first phase involved in the neurochemistry of attraction; characterized by high libido or sex drive
Ch 5: attraction
the second phase involved in the neurochemistry of attraction, characterized by increases in the neurotransmitter dopamine. It also involves increases in norepinephrine and decreases serotonin (the mood stabilizing neurotransmitter)
Ch 5: attachment
the third phase involved in the neurochemistry of attraction, characterized by a sense of calm, security, and emotional intimacy. Oxytocin is circulating in higher amounts in the brain, as is vasopressin, which constricts the blood vessels and influences feelings of bonding
Ch 5: propinquinty
a state in which people are more likely to date those who are nearby
Ch 5: Mere exposure effect
the idea that the more we are exposed to a person, the more likely we are to engage in a relationship with him/her
Ch 5: similarity-attraction effect
the idea that instead of opposites attracting, most of us actually choose mates very similar to ourselves in attractiveness, personality, and social standing
Ch 5: homophily
a liking for people similar to ourselves
Ch 5: expectancy value theory
a theory of mate selection that states that people evaluate potential partners based on percieved attractiveness, compatibility, similarity, and whether the person has the attributes and the potential to play vital roles
Ch 5: filter theory
a theory that states that people have various cognitive filters through which they sift the pool of eligibles
Ch 5: pool of eligibles
the available group of people who could be potential mates
A person who gets married while still married to someone else is committing the crime of:
The "second shift" refers to:
work performed at home after coming home from a paid job
A marriage in which family and community members choose several potential spouses but the young people make the final choice is a(n):
modified traditional arranged marriage
Which marriage type is associated with strong extended kin networks and religious faith?
The 1993 Hawaiian court case of Baehr v. Lewin determined for the first time that:
denying marriage to same-sex couples constituted discrimination based on sex and violated the state constitution's equal protection guarantee
The idea that groups are not equal and that hierarchy should be maintained is a social ___________
Before the U.S. federally legalized same-sex marriage across the nation, how many states legalized it?
The ______________ argument states that allowing same-sex marriage will normalize gay relationships and promote family values
______ is a person's subjective sense that someone cares and can be depended on.
A social marriage is most similar to a ___________
common law marriage
What unique challenges do singles face?
-Often ignored in public policy and research
-Marriage and partnership are the standards by which others are judged
-Ostracism and discrimination can lead to stress and loneliness
(Men tend to engage in more destructive behaviors)
(Women tend to focus attention on volunteering and social networks)
How does the normative life cycle model view singles?
-A traditional idea that everyone should form a heterosexual relationship, get married, and have children in that order and that no one would choose to be single.
-Non-normative singles (over age 35) are viewed especially critically.
How are singles diverse?
What environmental forces pose additional challenges for singles?
-In some religions, marriage is expected and required by God.
-In some countries, singles are more vulnerable to victimization, health risks, etc.
-In the United States: Legal discrimination affects singles, singles are more likely to live in poverty and are ineligible for some social programs or benefits
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