66 terms

CULF3330 MIDTERM "Terms"

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Muhammad Ali
was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans'; temporary approval. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted.
Napoleon Bonaparte
was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence
during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French
Revolutionary Wars.
Bourgeoisie
the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values
or conventional attitudes. The capitalist class who own most of society's wealth and means of
production (in Marxist contexts).
East India Company
was an English joint-stock company, which was formed to pursue trade with the "East Indies", but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of the Indian subcontinent. The company rose to account for half of the world's trade, particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea, and opium. The company also ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India.
Free Trade
international trade left to its natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other
restrictions.
Industrial Revolution
(1760-1820) was the transition to new manufacturing processes
going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron
production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine
tools and the rise of the factory system.
Industrious Revolution
is the title given to a period, that led up to the Industrial
Revolution. Characterized by a rise in demand for "market-supplied goods", which will
minimize the value of domestic goods, before the ultimate consumption. Industrious
Revolutions often occur during a period where labor wages have stagnated or decreased.
opium war
were two wars in the mid-19th century involving Anglo-Chinese disputes over
British trade in China and China's sovereignty. The disputes included the First Opium War
(1839-1842) and the Second Opium War (1856-1860). The wars and events between them
weakened the Qing dynasty and forced China to trade with the other parts of the world.
Popular Sovereignty
is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is
created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
Social Contract
typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the
legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social contract arguments
typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or magistrate, in exchange for
protection of their remaining rights.
Creoles
a person of mixed European and black descent, especially in the Caribbean.
Enlightenment
was an intellectual and philosophical movement which dominated the
world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century. Included a range of ideas centered on
reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy—and came to advance ideals like
liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church
and state.
Forbidden City of Beijing
was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the
end of the Qing dynasty
Great Plaza at Isfahan
Center of Safavid power in the 17th century. Had a public mosque, trading stalls and markets, government offices, and a personal mosque for the shah. Reflected desire to bring trade, government, and religion together under the authority of the supreme political leader.
oceania
Collective nam​e for the lands of Australia and New Zealand and the islands of the southwest Pacific Ocean. New wealth allowed funding for new voyages.
Palace of Versailles
King Louis XIV built the palace in the 1670s-1680s outside of Paris,
France. Like the Isfahan palace even though they had no knowledge of it. Shows wealth and
power to all that saw the palace.
Peninsulars
Spaniards who, although born in Spain, resided in the Spanish colonial
territories. They regarded themselves as superior to Spaniards born in the colonies. Pushed
the creole people to educate themselves because of the oppression they were feeling.
Philosophes
were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment. Few were primarily
philosophers; rather, philosophes were public intellectuals who applied reason to the study of
many areas of learning, including philosophy, history, science, politics, economics, and
social issues.
Scientific method
Method of inquiry based on experimentation in nature. Many of its
principles were first laid out by the philosopher Sir Francis Bacon, who claimed that real
science entailed the formulation of hypotheses that could be tested in carefully controlled
experiments. Scientists followed this method and defined what they believed to be universal
laws.
Taj Mahal
Royal palace of the Mughal Empire, built by Shah Jahan in the 17th century in
homage to his wife, Mumtaz. Was an example of Mughal high culture and the combining of
cultural traditions
absolute monarchy
Form of government where one body, usually the monarch, controls
the right to tax, judge, make war, and coin money. The term enlightened absolutists was
often used to refer to state monarchies in 17th and 18th Europe.
canton system
System officially established by imperial decree in 1759 that required
European traders to have Chinese guild merchants act as guarantors for their good behavior
and payment of fees.
Chartered company
Firms that were awarded monopoly trading rights over vast areas
by European monarchs.
enclosure
A movement in which landowners took control of lands that traditionally had
been common property serving local needs.
Mamluks
(arabic for "owned" or "possessed") Military men who ruled Egypt as an
independent regime from 1250 until the Ottoman conquest in 1517.
Manchus
Descendants of the Jurchens who helped the Ming army recapture Beijing in
1644 after its serizure by the outlaw Li Zicheng. The Manchus numbered around 1 million
but controlled a domain that included perhaps 250 million people. Their rule lasted more than
250 years and became known as the Qing Dynasty.
Mercantilism
Economic theory that drove European empire builders. In this economic
system, the world had a fixed amount of wealth, which meant one country's wealth came at
the expense of anothers. Assumed that colonies existed for the sole purpose of enriching the
country that controlled the colony.
Muscovy
The pricipality of Moscow. Originaly a mixture of Slavs, Finnish tribes, Turkic
speakers, and many others, Muscovy used territorial expansion and commercial networks to
consolidate a powerful state and expanded to become the Russian Empire, a huge realm that
spanned parts of Europe, much of northern Asia, numerous North Pacific islands, and even-
for a time-a corner of North America.
Qing Dynasty
(1644-1911) Minority Manchu rule over China that incorporated new
territories, experienced substantial population growth, and sustained significant economic
growth.
Seven Years war
(1756-1763) Worldwide ware that ended when Prussia defeated Austria,
establishing itself as a European power, and when Britain gained control of India and many
of Frances colonies through the Treaty of Paris.
Thirty Years War
(1618-1648) Conflict begun between protestants and catholics in
Germany that escalated into a general European war fought against the unity and power of
the Holy Roman Empire.
Tokugawa Shogunate
Hereditary military administration founded in 1603 that ruled Japan
while keeping the emperor as a figurehead; it was toppled in 1868 by reformers who felt that
Japan should adopt, not reject, Western influences.
Atlantic System
New system of trade and expansion that linked Europe, Africa, and the
Americas. It emerged in the wake of European voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Opened
up transatlantic slave trade.
Aztec Empire
Mesoamerican empire that originated with a league of three Mexica cities in
1430 and gradually expanded through the Central Valley of Mexico, uniting numerous small,
independent states under a single monarch who ruled with the help of counselors, military
leaders, and priests. By the 15th century, the Aztec realm may have embraced 25 million
people. In 1521, the conquistador Hernan Cortes defeated them. United numerous small,
independent states under a single monarch.
Jean Calvin
was an influential French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during
the Protestant Reformation.
Columbian Exchange
Movements between Afro-Eurasia and the Americas of previously
unknown plants, animals, people, diseases, and products that followed in the wake of
Columbus's voyages.
Conquistadors
Spanish military leaders who led the conquest of the New World in the
16th century. Expanded Spain territory.
Counter-Reformation
Movement to counter the spread of the reformation; initiated by the
Catholic Church enacted reforms to attack clerical corruption and it placed a greater
emphasis on individual spirituality. During this time, the Jesuits were founded to help revive
the Catholic Church.
Encomenderos
lies in the Spanish verb encomendar, "to entrust". The encomienda was
based on the reconquista institution in which adelantados were given the right to extract
tribute from Muslims or other peasants in areas that they had conquered and resettled.
Holy Roman Empire
Enormous realm that encompassed much of Europe and aspired to be
the Christian successor state to the Roman Empire. n the time of the Habsburg dynasts, the
empire was a loose confederation of principalities that obeyed an emperor elected by elite
lower-level sovereigns. Despite its size, the empire never effectively centralized power; it
was split into Austrian and Spanish factions when Charles V abdicated to his sons in 1556.
Incan Empire
Empire of Quecha-speaking rulers in the Andean valley of Cuzco that
encompassed a population of 4 to 6 million. The Incas lacked a clear inheritance system,
causing an internal split that Pizarro's forces exploited in 1533. Europeans had their way with
Americas people and resources
Jesuits
Religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola to counter the inroads of the Protestant
Reformation; the Jesuits, or the Society of Jesus, were active in politics, education, and
missionary work.
Martin Luther
was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a
seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther came to reject several teachings and
practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
Mughal empire
One of Islam's greatest regimes. Established in 1526, it was a vigorous,
centralized state whose political authority encompassed most of modern-day India. During
the 16th century, it had a population of between 100 and 150 million.
Protestant Reform
Religious movement initiated by 16th century monk Martin
Luther, who openly criticized the corruption in the Catholic Church and voiced his belief that
Christians could speak directly to God.
Black Death
Great epidemic of bubonic plague that included Europe, East Asia, and North
africa in the 14th century. Spread from fleas who contracted disease from rats. Killed as
many as 1/3 of European Population
Devshirme
system began in the late 14th century. Christian boys were recruited by force to
serve the Ottoman government. The boys were generally taken from the Balkan provinces,
converted to Islam, and then passed through a series of examinations to determine their
intelligence and capabilities.
Dynasty
Hereditary ruling family that passed control from one generation to the next. Used
power of their lineage to rule.
Humanism
The Renaissance aspiration to know more about the human experience beyond
what the Christian scriptures offered by reaching back into ancient Greek and Roman texts.
Focused on art and literature. Wasn't focused on the church as much.
Inquisition
was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic
Church whose aim was to combat heresy.
Monarchy
Political system in which one individual holds supreme power and passes that
on to his or her next of kin. Used marriage as a strategic tool and to form bonds.Brought
government into family life.
Ottoman Empire
Rulers of Anatolia, the Arab world, and much of S and E Europe in the
early 16 th century. Transformed from nomadic warrior bands who roamed the borderlands to
a vast, bureaucratic empire. Embraced Sunni view of Islam. Adapted traditional Byzantine
governmental practices but tried new ways. Linked parts of the world that would not have
otherwise been put together. Accomplished what many called impossible.
Red Turban Movement
Diverse religious movement in China during the 14 century that
spread the belief that the world was drawing to an end as Mongol rule was collapsing. Took
name from soldiers red headbands. Blended China's diverse cultural and religious traditions.
Renaissance
Means "rebirth" used to characterize the expanded cultural production of
European nations between 1430-1550. Emphasized a break from church-centered medieval
world and a new concept of humankind as center of the world. Focused on art and literature.
Tokapi Palace
Political headquarters of the Ottoman Empire, located in Istanbul. Designed
in a complex way. Center of world. Showed the power of the Ottoman power by its
luxuriousness
Zheng He
(1371-1433) Ming naval leader who established tributary relations with SE Asia,
Indian Ocean Ports, the Persian Gulf, and the E coast of Africa. Wanted to control trade.
Showed Chinas power to other parts of the world with his great ships and supplies to trade.
Cohokia
is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city (c. 600-1400 CE) directly
across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri. Cahokia was the largest and
most influential urban settlement of the Mississippian culture that developed advanced
societies across much of what is now the central and southeastern United States.
Chimu Empire
was one of the largest pre-Hispanic New World states, dominating much of
the north coast of Peru between ca. AD 900 to 1470 when conquered by the rival Inca
Empire. By the fifteenth century Chan Chan (capital) had developed into one of the largest
urban settlements in the pre-Hispanic Americas and the Chimú state had evolved into one of
the most powerful polities in Andean prehistory.
Delhi Sultanate
was a Muslim sultanate (dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan) based mostly
in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years
Entrepots
a port, city, or other center to which goods are brought for import and export,
and for collection and distribution.
Flying Cash
was a paper currency of the Tang dynasty in China and can be considered the
first banknote.
Jizya
is a per capita yearly tax historically levied by Islamic states on certain non-Muslim
subjects—dhimmis—permanently residing in Muslim lands under Islamic law. The Quran
and hadiths mention jizya without specifying its rate or amount.
Mali
was an empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to 1670. The empire was founded by
Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Musa Keita. It
was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa
through the spread of its language, laws and customs.
Manorialism
also called manorial system, seignorialism, or seignorial system, political,
economic, and social system by which the peasants of medieval Europe were rendered
dependent on their land and on their lord.
Sufism
defined as "Islamic mysticism" , "the inward dimension of Islam", or "the
phenomenon of mysticism within Islam", is a mystical trend in Islam "characterized ...
values, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions" which began very early on in Islamic
history and which represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central
crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam.
Toltecs
culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered
in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca.
900-1168 CE).
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