Cross Cultural Communications Midterm
Terms and Information to know for cross cultural communications spring 2018
Terms in this set (67)
Three characteristics of culture recognized by most anthropologists, according to Hall
Learned primarily in childhood, Various facets are interrelated, It is a system that changes and evolves.
The process of acquiring our underlying, native or primary culture.
Learning or adapting to another or secondary culture.
To be accepted into a culture as a fully participating member of equal status with everyone else.
Ex) an immigrant that values home culture & new culture. In other words, fitting into the new societal/social norms, but staying true to home values and customs.
Concentrates on comparison of cultures.
According to Weaver, "realistic cultural empathy" is...
Primarily cognitive & the ability to understand another person's perspective.
Concentrates on interaction of cultures.
Culture that values excess displays of emotion, impulsiveness and disorder.
Their research would be highly qualitative, experiential, and incomplete.
Culture that values restraint, modesty, inductive logic, and control.
Their research would develop with a well developed design explaining the approach and method.
Catch phrase meaning that the practices in every culture are acceptable.
Somewhat of a straw-man position.
Rejects hierarchical ethnocentrism of extreme versions of the comparative approach.
Success of U.S economics and politics sue to American holding special values.
Levels of culture shock.
1) Flight (I want to go home)
2) Fight (Angry at everyone)
3) Filter (Everything is backwards and everything sucks OR Wow everything is beautiful, I love the metro)
4) Flex (Assimilate, but hopefully integrate)
"Founders" of CCC
Hall & Toinnes
Haptic & Proxemics are forms of non-verbal communication dealing with...
Touch and Distance.
The practice of alternating between two languages.
Three disciplines that influence the intercultural field...
Psychology, Anthropology, and Sociology.
Emphasizes schedules, promptness, and segmentation.
Several things happening at once, no set rigid schedule.
Asserts that cultures can be objectively compared without resorting to arguments that one culture is better than the other.
Ex) "My ethnicity is the BEST ethnicity"
Being diverse in character/ content.
Many things all together.
High-Context Cultures tend to emphasize..
Indirect talk, Formal interaction, and Verbal self-humbling.
Attributing someones behavior to their traits.
"It's typical of those people."
Especially true for negative behavior.
We attribute someones behavior to a circumstance.
Iceberg Analogy of Culture
Behavior (Tip) (conscious)
Beliefs (Both above and underwater)
Values and thought patterns (underwater) (unconscious)
-Socially and religiously homogeneous rural community.
-Folk life and folk culture persist.
- Family life is the general basis of life.
-Heterogeneous urban society.
-The state protects the people through legislation and politics.
Increasing the knowledge people may have of other cultures.
Trying to explain another culture in terms of one's own.
Abstractive and Associative refer to...
Cognitive patterns or problem-solving methods.
Quantitative and Inductive.
Qualitative and Deductive.
Hall & Hall Main Points
-Ignorance of nonverbal communication threatens international relations, trade, and world peace.
-We think behavior is universal, which results in misunderstandings.
-High and Low Context
-Nothing is independent of something else.
Singer Main Points
-Every identity group has a culture of its own.
-Every individual is simultaneously a part of hundreds of different cultures.
-Each individual must be considered culturally unique, thus every interpersonal conversation is intercultural communication.
-Perceptions: the shape drawing exercise...we associate meanings to signs that have no inherent meaning.
Struck Main Points
-Japanese society must become more independent and less preoccupied with rules, peer pressure, and tests.
-Feels that something is wrong with Japanese society.
-Democracy is a universal value.
-Not a monopoly of America.
Tonnies Main Points
Harrison Main Points
-Culture determines success/advancement of society.
-Progressive versus static cultures.
-Progress prone values = national economic growth.
Mehrabian Main Points
-Language isn't just verbal
-An electronic voice filter shows the inconsistency of the information communicated in words and the information communicated vocally.
-Many physical actions/body language can play a role in interpreting a message
-Three categories established for relaxation (least, moderate, and extreme)
-Body orientation shows status/level of comfort
-Negative communications toward disturbed children occur because the child is a problem and therefore elicits them & The negative attitude precedes the child's disturbance.
Unno Main Points
- Japanese society tends to evaluate a person based on his/her politeness, modesty, and harmoniousness.
-National values became more pronounced in crisis situations.
-A global leader should accept the best people, ideas, technology, wisdom and opinions regardless of race or nationality.
-Crisis communication and cultural values are woven together inextricably.
Hofstede Main Points
5 dimensions: Masculine/feminine, Uncertainty avoidance, Power distance, Long term versus Short term, Individualism versus collectivism.
Related to the different solutions to the basic problem of human inequality.
-In other words, extent to which less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.
Ex.) Small Power Distance example:
-Parents treat children as equals
-Student centered education
-Older people are neither respected or feared
Ex.) Large Power Distance:
-Parents teach children obedience
-Older people are respected and feared
-Religions with a hierarchy of priests
Related to the level of stress in a society in the face of an unknown feature.
-In other words, the level of stress felt in face of an unknown situation. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of situations by strict behavior codes.
Ex) Strong Avoidance:
-Need for clarity and structure
-Teachers are supposed to have all of the answers
Staying in jobs even if disliked
Ex) Low Avoidance:
-Comfortable with ambiguity and chaos
- Changing jobs with no problems
Related to the integration of individuals into primary groups.
-Individualism is one sided while collectivism is societal
-Is that people are born into extended families
-Put stress on belonging
-Taking care of yourself
-Right of privacy
Related to the division of emotional roles b et seen women and men.
Long term/ Short term orientation
Related to the choice of focus for people;s efforts: the future or the present and past.
-In other words, Long term is thrift and perseverance, and Short term focuses on respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations and protecting ones "face"
Ex) Long term
-More important events happen in the future
Ex) Short term
-More important events happened in the past/now
-Unconstructed problem solving
Phillips Main Points
-Questions: "Do cultural and regional differences play a role in aviation safety?"
- Airplane accidents are tied to collectivism (lower in individualism) and higher power distances.
Telecommunications such as radio, television, internet
Texting, sending voicemail messages, or using Facebook and Twitter
Cybernetics Model of Communication
Sender > Encoder > Media or Channel > Decoder > Receiver.....Feedback all the way back to Sender.
High Context Culture
Cultures that communicate in ways that are implicit and rely heavily on context!
Collectivist, value interpersonal relationships, and have members that form close/ stable relationships.
(Asian, Southern European, African, South American)
Low Context Culture
Cultures that relay on explicit and direct verbal communications.
Written agreements and plans.
A set sequence of events in which usually two or more individuals participate.
Facial Expressions, vocal patterns, posture, social distance, and use of time.
Fluidity in speaking style.
Shifting from styles depending on the audience.
The practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility.
Being adept at interacting and working with people of various backgrounds.
Understanding the behaviors, values, beliefs and world views of people from another culture.
- A more complex level of cultural competence involves understanding what motivates behavior.
-We must have knowledge about the entire vertical iceberg of culture including both external and internal components.
Experiment in International Living
Was established in Brattleboro, Vermont to foster and support the exchange of high school and college students from around the world.
The United States Information Agency (USIA)
Established by President Eisenhower in 1953 to provide cultural and educational outreach through American embassies around the world.
Was the first organized governmental effort to engage citizens in what today would be termed "public diplomacy"
Business Council for International Understanding (BCIU)
Was established in the School of International Service at American University to train business executives and their families for relocating over seas.
Was renamed Intercultural Management Institute in 2008.
The Society for International Development
Found in 1958 to bring together the thousands of civilian and government experts who were involved in political and economic development projects in poor countries.
The Foreign Service Institute
Was established in 1950 by the U. S Department of State to provide area studies and language training for American diplomats.
In 1960s they led the way in developing new research on cross-cultural communication and adaptation and more effective ways to train diplomats for working overseas.
Edward Hall, Robert Khols, Edmund S. Glenn and Glen Fisher all worked at the FSI.
Society for Intercultural Education, Training and Research (SIETAR)
Formally founded in 1974, a year before the end of the Vietnam War.
It is the oldest professional association for interculturalists.
They promote education in the field through the scholarship of its members and the formal acquisitions, analysis, and interpretation of intercultural knowledge.
Also established to promote intercultural training.
International Academy for Intercultural Research (IAIR)
Created in 1997, a professional association whose primary purpose is to provide and opportunity for its Fellows, who are published scholars and researchers to share their findings.