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BIO 101 Exam #2 Prep Cnidarians and Flatworms
Terms in this set (22)
specialized stinging cells of cnidarians
sessile (does not move) body form of some cnidarians (e.g., anemones)
mobile (something that moves) body form of some cnidarians (e.g., jellyfish)
free swimming larvum
male and female sex organs are present on the same individual (i.e., hermaphrodism)
male and female sex organs are present on separate individuals
first opening to develop in bilaterian animals; developes into mouth in proterostomes and anus in deuterostomes
a digestive system with a mouth but no anus
parasite that lives inside of the host organism
parasite that lives outside of the host organism
What is the difference between radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry?
radial symmetry- body parts are arranged concentrically around an oral-aboral axis (mouth-opposite of mouth axis)
bilateral symmetry- body parts are symmetric along one axis only, which divides the body into right and left halves
What major feature distinguishes non-sponge animals from sponges (Porifera)? (what do sponges not have that all other animals do?)
Cnidarians have diploblastic tissues (2 layers)
bilaterians have triploblastic tissues (3 layers).
List the two major clades of Cnidaria
Anthozoa (sea anemones, stony corals
Medusazoa (jellyfish, hydras, Portuguese-man-of-war)
What is meant by alternation of generations in terms of cnidarians?
an individual will live part of its life as a motile medusa (produced asexually through budding) and part of its life as a sessile polyp (produced sexually)
List the major synapomorphies of Bilateria.
bilateral symmetry, cephalization, and triploblastic tissues
the localization of nervous control within a distinct head region of the body
allows motile animals to live freely (not dependant on other organisms), indicates the direction of movement, and allows development of special senses that are controlled by a brain
What does it mean if tissues are triploblastic, and what are the names of the layers?
consists of three tissue layers
ectoderm (outermost tissue layer of that lines the body)
mesoderm (middlemost layer)
endoderm (innermost tissue layer that lines the gut)
List the differences between Protostomia and Deuterostomia
Protostomia is a monophyletic clade of Bilateria that is characterized by the blastopore (first opening in the embryo) developing as the mouth and position of the nerve cord along the ventral (belly) side of the body
Deuterostomia is a monophyletic clade of Bilateria that is characterized by radial cleavage during early development, the blastopore (first opening in the embryo) developed as the anus, and position of the nerve cord along the dorsal (back) side of the body
You are a deuterostome! (I.e., a member of Deuterostomia.) What feature(s) do you share with all other deuterostomes?
you share development of the blastopore into the anus (first opening to develop) and a dorsally positioned nerve cord.
Of the four major groups of Platyhelminthes, which are free-living and which are symbiotic parasites?
"Turbillaria" (non-monophyletic) is free-living
Trematoda, Monogenea, and Cestoda are symbiotic parasites (trematodes and cestodes are endoparasites, monogenes are ectoparasites).
What are the three types of symbiosis, and how do they differ?
Symbiosis is the interaction of two different species in which one or both get benefits
mutualism (both species benefit)
commensalism (one benefits, but the other is unaffected)
parasitism (one benefits and the other is harmed)
Many endoparasitic species of the Platyhelminthes clade Trematoda have complex life cycles with both intermediate and definitive (final) hosts.
What are the usual animals that serve as the intermediate and definitive hosts?
The usual intermediate host of endoparasitic platyhelminths (flatworms) are snails, and the definitive hosts are usually vertebrates, including humans!
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