51 terms

Prophets Exam 1 set # 2

Summer 2013

Terms in this set (...)

The Office of Prophet
Deuteronomy 18:9- 22
An appointed spokesman for God; implying divine authority and God's own seal and guarantee on his words.

What a prophet is tasked to do is to take the story of God's work with his people and apply it to his circumstances.
Criteria for distinguishing true from false prophets
- It must cohere with the law of Moses
- Must validate his words by the ability to tell the future
- The people must exercise discernment
Three Characteristics of a Prophet
1/ direct personal communication from God;

2/ the message concerns the things of God, and his kingdom (in my terms, the corporate entity and its mission in the world);

3/ he faithfully recorded or uttered the revelation he received.
Four Affirmations about OT prophets
1. The prophets considered themselves servants of God, vehicles through whom God himself spoke.

2. They considered the content of their message unoriginal.

3. They considered themselves as occupying a divinely appointed societal office, correcting illegal beliefs and practices. Responding to a divine call, not just putting themselves out there.

4. They understood what they preached.
Interpretive Principles for Prophets
1) Prophecy and Prediction - it is more than prediction but prediction is still a part.

2) Poetic elevation - idealistic, imaginative language appropriate for what the prophets had to say.

3) Figurative representation - VISIONS are the medium, thus there is symbolism and figurative language that does not have to be taken "literally."

4) Relative time periods ("foreshortening") - not total disregard but symbolic numbers and not always chronological

5) We are told what we need to know - if the author/compiler does not give us surrounding details, they are not relevant
Interpretive Issues in Prophets
1) Messiah: 'anointed one' - figure from Dan. 9:25-26, anticipated in intertestamental period
Gen 3:15; 17:16; 2 Sam. 7
Mic. 5:2, Hos. 3:4-5,
Is. 7;14, 9:2-7, 11:1-10, 52:13-53:12

2) Eschatology: later days, day of the Lord
Collins argues this refers to multiple events, not one "Day of the Lord."

3) Sacrifice: Prophets opposed to outward appearances not sacrificial system of Pentateuch

4) Fairbairn's categories:
-- disclosure of truth (Messianic/restorative oracles): UNCONDITIONAL
-- opposing kingdoms (who do not hear the prophecy): UNCONDITIONAL
-- everything else: CONDITIONAL

5) Judgment/Salvation - how can judgment be a promise of blessing? (Micah - Amos)
Tiglath Pileser in power
745 BC
Syro-Ephraimite War
732 BC Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Damascus tried to force Judah to join an anti-Assyrian alliance. Ahaz appeals to Assyria instead, becomes a vassal of for a century. Philistines and Edomites took advantage and made hostile incursions.
Fall of Samaria
722 BC to Sargon
Egyptian agitation
prior to 705 BC against Assyria
Sennacherib's invasion
701 BC Failed attack on Jerusalem (Hezekiah's prayers)
Jonah - Date
ca. 793-753
Jonah - Historical Setting
During the reign of Jeroboam II (Israel at its height - largest borders), Assyria weakened (Jeroboam II died 8 years before Tiglath Pilesar)
Jonah - Addressees
Israel; possibly Ninevah
Jonah - Main Message
If you relent from your evil way then God will relent from sending the calamity he threatened.
Repentance is the correct response to prophecy
- To encourage the Jews to repent
- To show the possibility of repenting
- To identify repentance as the correct response to prophecy
Jonah - Outline
I. The Lord's first word to Jonah (1)
II. Jonah's Response to Divine Mercy (2)
III. The Lord's Second Word to Jonah (3)
IV. Jonah's Response to Divine Mercy (4:1-5)
V. Final Dialogue between God and Jonah (4:6-11)
Jonah - Key Verses
Jonah 2:9-10
Amos - Date
ca. 760 BC
Amos - Historical Setting
During the reign of Jeroboam II and Uzziah - the height of prosperity for both kingdoms.
Amos - Addressees
Israel, indirectly Judah
Amos - Main Message
Repent of misuse of wealth and misuse of worship; judgment will come to purge the corporate entity of the unfaithful in order to restore the purpose of Israel as a light to the Gentiles (through the line of Davd); who WILL come in one way or the other.
Amos - Outline
I. Judgment: Gentiles, Judah, Israel (1-2)
II. Indictment (3-6)
III. Series of 5 Visions (7-9:10)
IV. Epilogue: restoration of Davidic kingdom (9:11-15)
Amos - Key Verses
3:1-2 ; 5:4-9
Hosea - Date
ca. 735 BC
Hosea - Historical Setting
After Jeroboam's death now six kings in 30 years, lots of instability in the North. Conditions: Idolatry and immorality intertwined. Tiglath-Pileser now a real threat.
Hosea Addressees
Hosea - Main Message
To know the one true God to whom his people are bound by covenant. God's grace despite heartbreak - taking her back.
Hosea - Outline
1-3: Hosea's marriage as a parable
4-14: The parable spelt out
Hosea - Key Verses
14:1-9; 11:8-9
Micah - Date
ca. 740-687 BC
Micah - Historical Setting
Possibly had two major periods of his prophetic career - one prior to the fall of Jerusalem during the beginning of Ahaz's reign and a reentry after the shock of Israel's fall had waned but before Sennacherib's invasion.

Under Jotham (2Kg 15.34-35); Ahaz (2Kg 16.2-4; cf. Isa 2.6ff 8.16ff); Hezekiah (2Kg 18.3-6; but even then the popular religion was probably not as pure as the king's); Manasseh (2Kg 21.2ff). Very difficult to locate specific oracles historically.
Micah - Addressees
Micah - Main Message
Walk humbly with your God: Embracing the covenant from the heart, embracing your place in the story, will lead to just living/square dealings.
Micah - Outline
I. Judgment and Deliverance (1-2)
II. False leaders denounced (3-5)
III. Hope in darkness (6-7)
Micah - Key Verses
6:6-8 ; 7:18-20
Isaiah - Date
ca. 740-681
Isaiah - Setting
Judean Kings: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah

Tiglath Pileser
Syro-Ephriamite War
Fall of Samaria
Failed attack on Jerusalem - 701 (Sennacherib)
Isaiah - Intended Audience
Isaiah - Main Themes
There's a glorious future in store for Jerusalem. But our current environment doesn't fit with that vision. There must be a purification of Zion. If you don't get on board with it, there will be destruction. This is the thrust of the entire book - embrace it's truth by ceasing to do evil and to walk in the way of the Lord. This will be unfolded throughout the rest of Isaiah.
Messianic Sections
Book of Immanuel: 7-12
Servant Songs: 42, 49, 50, 42:13-53
Isaiah ch. 1 Relation to whole book
the sinfulness of Judah and Jerusalem (vv 3-8),

the tender appeals of the Lord (vv 16-19),

the certainty of the coming judgment (vv 24, 25, 29-31),

the blessedness of the salvation to come (vv 26, 27)

the remnant motif (v 9)

the reason for these hardships (vv 19-20)
Isaiah ch. 6 Relation to whole book
1. The name: Holy One of Israel (Isaiah's favorite name for God) from "Holy, Holy, Holy"

2. Authenticates Isaiah's right to speak such bleak judgment

3. Instead of the seed of evildoers (1:4), there will survive a holy seed (6:13)
Arguments against traditional Isaiac authorship
There are 3 main reasons for assigning 40-66 to an unknown author in the 6th century BC:
(a) historical setting of chs. 40-66 reflects the exilic period, because Jerusalem is depicted as having fallen and been deported;

(b) the striking differences in language, style, and concepts between the two parts of the book point to different authors;

(c) the Hebrew prophet was, the theory holds, primarily given a message for his own day (addressing contemporary issues with God's word); chs. 40-66 are said not to be addressed to the people of the 8th century.20
Arguments for traditional Isaiac authorship
1. Linguistic - none is demonstrably later than the latter part of Isaiah's own lifetime. Stylistic differences argument is arbitrary.

2. Literary - there is a close thematic connection between the two parts of the book.

3. Tradition - Isaiah is cited in other OT authors (Jer, Zeph in the 7th century)

4. Content - predictive prophecy: long range fulfillment must be in mind; polemic against idolatry: Canaanite, rather than Babylonian; relevance to Isaiah's time: the analogy of prophecy supports the traditional view

5. Ideology - do the presuppositions [methodological naturalism] of the critical view have merit?
Jonah 2:9-10
9 But I with the voice of thanksgiving
will sacrifice to you;
what I have vowed I will pay.
Salvation belongs to the LORD!"
10 And the LORD spoke to the fish, and it vomited Jonah out upon the dry land.
Amos 3:1-2
Hear this word that the LORD has spoken against you, O people of Israel, against the whole family that I brought up out of the land of Egypt:
2 "You only have I known
of all the families of the earth;
therefore I will punish you
for all your iniquities.
Amos 5:4-9
For thus says the LORD to the house of Israel:
"Seek me and live;
5 but do not seek Bethel,
and do not enter into Gilgal
or cross over to Beersheba;
for Gilgal shall surely go into exile,
and Bethel shall come to nothing."
6 Seek the LORD and live,
lest he break out like fire in the house of Joseph,
and it devour, with none to quench it for Bethel,
7 O you who turn justice to wormwood
and cast down righteousness to the earth!
8 He who made the Pleiades and Orion,
and turns deep darkness into the morning
and darkens the day into night,
who calls for the waters of the sea
and pours them out on the surface of the earth,
the LORD is his name;
9 who makes destruction flash forth against the strong,
so that destruction comes upon the fortress.
Hosea 14:1-9
14 Return, O Israel, to the LORD your God,
for you have stumbled because of your iniquity.
2 Take with you words
and return to the LORD;
say to him,
"Take away all iniquity;
accept what is good,
and we will pay with bulls
the vows of our lips.
3 Assyria shall not save us;
we will not ride on horses;
and we will say no more, 'Our God,'
to the work of our hands.
In you the orphan finds mercy."

4 I will heal their apostasy;
I will love them freely,
for my anger has turned from them.
5 I will be like the dew to Israel;
he shall blossom like the lily;
he shall take root like the trees of Lebanon;
6 his shoots shall spread out;
his beauty shall be like the olive,
and his fragrance like Lebanon.
7 They shall return and dwell beneath my shadow;
they shall flourish like the grain;
they shall blossom like the vine;
their fame shall be like the wine of Lebanon.

8 O Ephraim, what have I to do with idols?
It is I who answer and look after you.
I am like an evergreen cypress;
from me comes your fruit.

9 Whoever is wise, let him understand these things;
whoever is discerning, let him know them;
for the ways of the LORD are right,
and the upright walk in them,
but transgressors stumble in them.
Hosea 11:8-9
8 How can I give you up, O Ephraim?
How can I hand you over, O Israel?
How can I make you like Admah?
How can I treat you like Zeboiim?
My heart recoils within me;
my compassion grows warm and tender.
9 I will not execute my burning anger;
I will not again destroy Ephraim;
for I am God and not a man,
the Holy One in your midst,
and I will not come in wrath.
Micah 6:6-8
6 "With what shall I come before the LORD,
and bow myself before God on high?
Shall I come before him with burnt offerings,
with calves a year old?
7 Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams,
with ten thousands of rivers of oil?
Shall I give my firstborn for my transgression,
the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?"
8 He has told you, O man, what is good;
and what does the LORD require of you
but to do justice, and to love kindness,
and to walk humbly with your God?
Micah 7:18-20
18 Who is a God like you, pardoning iniquity
and passing over transgression
for the remnant of his inheritance?
He does not retain his anger forever,
because he delights in steadfast love.
19 He will again have compassion on us;
he will tread our iniquities underfoot.
You will cast all our sins
into the depths of the sea.
20 You will show faithfulness to Jacob
and steadfast love to Abraham,
as you have sworn to our fathers
from the days of old.