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Reaction and Revolution Spielvogel ch 21
Terms in this set (167)
The PEAR (Prussia, England, Austria and Russia) that defeated Napoleon and played the dominant role at the Congress of Vienna. Each of the countries committed 150,000 troops for 20 years to maintain the post Napoleonic peace.
The dynasty restored in Spain and France (Louis XVIII) following the defeat of Napoleon. Reflected the principle of legitimacy.
Younger brother of Louis XVI who became the King of France in 1814. Good example of the principle of legitimacy. He gave the French people a constitutional charter making the French government of 1814 very similar to the British government of 1814.
Congress of Vienna
Convened in September 1814 to arrange a final peace settlement. This meeting ultimately significantly changed the map of Europe and the leaders who ruled post-Napoleonic Europe.
Klemens von Metternich
Austrian foreign minister. Played the dominant role at the Congress of Vienna. Very Conservative, sought to restore Europe to its pre-French revolution self. Detested liberalism and nationalism as they threatened the status quo and the existence of the multi-national Austrian Empire. The period from 1815-1850 is often referred to as the age of ___________________________________.
Principle of legitimacy
the idea that after the Napoleonic wars, peace could best be reestablished in Europe by restoring monarchs who were in power before Napoleon took them out of power, and who would preserve traditional institutions; this idea guided Metternich at the Congress of Vienna.
Territory created out of the lands that had been taken by Russia, Austria and Prussia. Under Napoleon, much of this land had been the Duchy of Warsaw, the Congress of Vienna changed the territory to this. The new creation created by the Congress of Vienna was to be ruled by Czar Alexander I of Russia.
Polish Saxon Question
Russia had made a deal with Prussia that would allow Russia to take all of Poland and for Prussia to take all of the German territory of Saxony. This deal was made during the COV. Britain and Austria rejected the plan and the four allies came close to war. A compromise was struck to avoid war in which Russia got a smaller Poland and Prussia got 2/5 of the territory of Saxony.
Prussia's territorial gain for lost Polish territory (as a result of the Congress of Vienna)
Prussia gained 2/5 of Saxony, the Napoleonic German creation of Westphalia, and the east bank of the Rhine river.
Austria's territorial gain for losing the Austrian Netherlands. (as a result of the Congress of Vienna).
Austria gained the northern Italian territories of Lombardy and Venetia.
Russia's territorial gains from Congress of Vienna
The Kingdom of Poland.
Defensive barriers established at COV to stop future French Expansion
To the north of France, they created a new enlarged kingdom of the Netherlands composed of the former Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) under a new ruler, King William I of the house of Orange. To the southeast, Piedmont (officially part of the kingdom of Sardinia) was enlarged. On France's eastern frontier, Prussia was strengthened by giving it control of the territory along the east bank of the Rhine. The British at least expected Prussia to be the major bulwark against French expansion in central Europe, but the Congress of Vienna also created a new league of German states, the Germanic Confederation, to replace the Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine.
Kingdom of the Netherlands
composed of the former Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) under a new ruler, King William I of the house of Orange.
a new league of German states, the Germanic Confederation, to replace the Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine.
"Reflections on the Revolution in France"
Book written by Edmund Burke, often cited as a key defense of the conservative philosophy.
an ideology based on tradition and social stability that favored the maintenance of established institutions, organized religion, and obedience to authority and resisted change, especially abrupt change.
They favored obedience to political authority, believed that organized religion was crucial to social order, hated revolutionary upheavals, and were unwilling to accept either the liberal demands for civil liberties and representative governments or the nationalistic aspirations generated by the French revolutionary era. The community took precedence over individual rights; society must be organized and ordered, and tradition remained the best guide for order.
Concert of Europe
This accord grew out of the reaffirmation of the Quadruple Alliance in November 1815. Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria renewed their commitment against any attempted restoration of Bonapartist power and agreed to meet periodically in conferences to discuss their common interests and examine measures that would be judged most helpful for "the maintenance of peace" in Europe.
the existing state of affairs, especially regarding social or political issues.
"they have a vested interest in maintaining the _______________________________.
Congresses (Congress System)
In accordance with the agreement for periodic meetings, four __________________________ were held between 1818 and 1822
Congress of Aix La Chapelle
At this Congress the four great powers agreed to withdraw their army of occupation from France and to add France to the Concert of Europe. The Quadruple Alliance became a quintuple alliance.
Congress of Troppau
called in the autumn of 1820 to deal with the outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy. established the principle of intervention.
States which have undergone a change of Government due to revolution, the results of which threaten other states, ipso facto cease to be members of the European Alliance, and remain excluded from it until their situation gives guarantees for legal order and stability. If, owing to such situations, immediate danger threatens other states, the Powers bind themselves, by peaceful means, or if need be by arms, to bring back the guilty state into the bosom of the Great Alliance.
Congress of Laibach
Ignoring the British response, Austria, Prussia, and Russia met in a third congress at __________________ in January 1821 and authorized the sending of Austrian troops to Naples. These forces crushed the revolt, restored Ferdinand I to the throne, and then moved north to suppress the rebels in Piedmont.
Congress of Verona
At the fourth postwar conference, held at ________________ in October 1822, the same three powers authorized France to invade Spain to crush the revolt against Ferdinand VII. In the spring of 1823, French forces restored the Bourbon monarch.
Britain's response to Troppau Protocol
Britain refused to agree to the principle, arguing that it had never been the intention of the Quadruple Alliance to interfere in the internal affairs of other states, except in France.
Greek Revolt 1821
the Monroe Doctrine
in 1823, guaranteeing the independence of the new Latin American nations and warning against any further European intervention in the New World in the famous _________________________________.
"Massace at Chios"
Painted by French Romantic painter, Eugene Delacroix. Depicted the Turkish atrocities against the Greeks in the Greek revolution against the Turks.
"On this day, I complete my 36th year"
Poem written by English Romantic poet, Lord Byron. Speaks of the glory of going to fight for Greece, and if need be to die on the fields of Athens. He did die in a situation related to Greece, he fell ill in a camp on the way to Greece and died, not on the fields of battle.
Treaty of Adrianople
By the ___________________________________ in 1829, which ended the Russian-Turkish war, the Russians received a protectorate over the two provinces. By the same treaty, the Ottoman Empire agreed to allow Russia, France, and Britain to decide the fate of Greece. In 1830, the three powers declared Greece an independent kingdom, and two years later, a new royal dynasty was established.
Achieved in 1830, this country broke from the Ottoman Empire.
They controlled the region of Europe referred to as the Balkans and also Greece (prior to the Greek Revolution of 1830).
"Pocket" or "Rotten" boroughs
Representation in the British House of Commons was based on regions of land. Many of these areas of land had lost population over time, so that a very small number of people lived in the area, yet they had representation in the HOC. One powerful person could control the area and send their choice of person to the HOC as a member of Parliament (MP). This was fundamentally not fair to areas that hed much larger populations.
Birmingham and Manchester
Key industrial cities in the middle of Britain. Prior to 1832 had no direct representation in the HOC.
How seats were allocated in the HOC. You were represented by the __________________________ you lived in. Birmingham and Manchester did not have this political designation prior to 1832.
Both parties in Great Britain were still dominated by members of the landed classes. ______________ ministers largely dominated the government until 1830 and had little desire to change the existing political and electoral system.
Both were still dominated by members of the landed classes, although the ______________________ were beginning to receive support from the new industrial middle class.
Corn Laws 1815
Renewed in Britain in 1815, a tariff that was placed on imported grains from the Continent into Britain. Artificially kept the price of grain (bread) high in Britain, thus hurting the workers and benefiting the landowning class (that controlled the Parliament since 1688)
Peterloo massacre 1819
This colored etching depicts the massacre on August 16, 1819, in St. Peter's Field in Manchester. The gathering was organized by the Manchester Patriotic Union Society, a group that had called for parliamentary reforms and the end of the Corn Laws. Over 60,000 people had gathered in the field. Soldiers forced their way toward the speakers by cutting their way through the crowds with their sabers, killing eleven and wounding many women and children.
in nineteenth-century France, a group of aristocrats who sought to return to a monarchical system dominated by a landed aristocracy and the Catholic Church.
count of Artois, Charles X
granted an indemnity to aristocrats whose lands had been confiscated during the Revolution. Moreover, the king pursued a religious policy that encouraged the Catholic Church to reestablish control over the French educational system. He was an Ultraroyalist.
a sum of money paid as compensation, especially a sum exacted by a victor in war as one condition of peace.
Much of Italy was under Austrian domination, and all the states had extremely reactionary governments eager to smother any liberal or nationalist sentiment. Nevertheless, secret societies motivated by nationalistic dreams and known as the __________________ ("charcoal burners") continued to conspire and plan for revolution.
Lombardy and Venetia
Territories in northern Italy given to Austria as a result of the COV.
The Kingdom of Sardinia, Piedmont
The only Italian territory with an Italian government. Will become the nucleus of a unified Italy by 1861.
student societies in the German states dedicated to fostering the goal of a free, united Germany.
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
organized gymnastic societies during the Napoleonic wars to promote the regeneration of German youth and support the "War of German Liberation" against the French. __________________________ encouraged Germans to pursue their Germanic heritage and urged his followers to disrupt the lectures of professors whose views were not nationalistic.
Karlsbad Decrees 1819
1819. These closed the Burschenschaften, provided for censorship of the press, and placed the universities under close supervision and control. Thereafter, except for a minor flurry of activity from 1830 to 1832, Metternich and the cooperative German rulers maintained the conservative status quo.
Multi-national nature of the Austrian Empire
a deep-seated feeling of dislike; aversion.
"his fundamental ________________ to capitalism"
Czar of Russia from 1801-1825. He had been raised in the ideas of the Enlightenment and initially seemed willing to make reforms. With the aid of his liberal adviser Michael Speransky (spyuh-RAHN-skee), he relaxed censorship, freed political prisoners, and reformed the educational system. He refused, however, to grant a constitution or free the serfs in the face of opposition from the nobility. After the defeat of Napoleon, he became a reactionary, and his government reverted to strict and arbitrary censorship. Soon opposition to _______________ arose from a group of secret societies.
Someone who is extremely conservative. Not satisfied to maintain the status quo, but wants to go backwards in terms of rights, morals, etc.
Russia 1825. Liberals rose up to stop Nicholas I from becoming Czar, favoring instead Nicolas' older brother Constantine. The uprising failed and Nicolas I became a very autocratic, reactionary Czar.
an ideology based on the belief that people should be as free from restraint as possible. Economic _________________ is the idea that the government should not interfere in the workings of the economy. Political _________________________ is the idea that there should be restraints on the exercise of power so that people can enjoy basic civil rights in a constitutional state with a representative assembly.
Also called classical economics. _______________________________ had as its primary tenet the concept of laissez-faire, the belief that the state should not interrupt the free play of natural economic forces, especially supply and demand. Government should not restrain the economic liberty of the individual and should restrict itself to only three primary functions: defense of the country, police protection of individuals, and the construction and maintenance of public works too expensive for individuals to undertake.
"Essay on the principles of population"
Thomas Malthus. In this work, Malthus argued that population, when unchecked, increases at a geometric rate while the food supply correspondingly increases at a much slower arithmetic rate. The result will be severe overpopulation and ultimately starvation for the human race if this growth is not held in check. According to Malthus, nature imposes a major restraint with severe labor and exposure to the seasons, extreme poverty, bad nursing of children, excesses of all kinds, many common diseases, epidemics, wars, plague, and famine. Thus, misery and poverty were simply the inevitable result of the law of nature; no government or individual should interfere with its operation.
iron law of wages
In Principles of Political Economy, written in 1817, Ricardo developed his famous "______________________________" Following Malthus, David Ricardo argued that an increase in population means more workers; more workers in turn cause wages to fall below the subsistence level. The result is misery and starvation, which then reduce the population. Consequently, the number of workers declines, and wages rise above the subsistence level again, which in turn encourages workers to have larger families as the cycle is repeated. According to Ricardo, raising wages arbitrarily would be pointless since it would accomplish little but perpetuate this vicious circle.
Politically, _____________________________ came to hold a common set of beliefs. Chief among them was the protection of civil liberties or the basic rights of all people, which included equality before the law; freedom of assembly, speech, and press; and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
of Church and State
most liberals advocated separation ____________________.
Many liberals believed, then, in a _____________________________ _________________________ or constitutional state with limits on the powers of government to prevent despotism and in written constitutions that would help guarantee these rights.
many liberals believed that although all people were entitled to equal civil rights, they should not have equal ____________ rights.
liberalism was tied to middle-class men, especially industrial middle-class men who favored the extension of voting rights so that they could share power with the landowning classes. They had little desire to let the lower classes share that power. Liberals were not ___________________.
John Stuart Mill
One of the most prominent advocates of liberalism in the nineteenth century was the English philosopher ________________________________ (1806-1873). On Liberty, his most famous work, published in 1859, has long been regarded as a classic statement on the liberty of the individual. He argued for an "absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects" that needed to be protected from both government censorship and the tyranny of the majority.
John Stuart Mill's famous work on liberalism.
"On the Subjection of Women"
John Stuart Mill argued that the legal subordination of one sex to the other was wrong. Differences between women and men, he said, were due not to different natures but simply to social practices. With equal education, women could achieve as much as men. "__________________________________" would become an important work in the nineteenth-century movement for women's rights.
arose out of an awareness of being part of a community that has common institutions, historical traditions, language, and customs.
liberalism and nationalism
At the same time, in the first half of the nineteenth century, __________________________ and _____________________ became strong allies. Most liberals believed that liberty could be realized only by peoples who ruled themselves.
an ideology that calls for collective or government ownership of the means of production and the distribution of goods.
intellectuals and theorists in the early nineteenth century who favored equality in social and economic conditions and wished to replace private property and competition with collective ownership and cooperation. people who followed this belief were against private property and the competitive spirit of early industrial capitalism. By eliminating these things and creating new systems of social organization, they thought that a better environment for humanity could be achieved.
proposed the creation of small model communities called phalansteries. These were self-contained cooperatives, each consisting ideally of 1,620 people. Communally housed, the inhabitants of the phalanstery (fuh-LAN-stuh-ree) would live and work together for their mutual benefit. Work assignments would be rotated frequently to relieve workers of undesirable tasks. ________________________ was unable to gain financial backing for his phalansteries, however, and his plan remained untested.
a self-sustaining cooperative community, as advocated by Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century.
believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. At New Lanark in Scotland, he was successful in transforming a squalid factory town into a flourishing, healthy community. But when he attempted to create a self-contained cooperative community at New Harmony, Indiana, in the United States in the 1820s, bickering within the community eventually destroyed his dream.
New Lanark and New Harmony
cites of Robert Owens socialist communities.
In The Organization of Work, he maintained that social problems could be solved by government assistance. Denouncing competition as the main cause of the economic evils of his day, he called for the establishment of workshops that would manufacture goods for public sale. The state would finance these workshops, but the workers would own and operate them.
even attempted to foster a "utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism." She traveled through France preaching the need for the liberation of women. Her Worker's Union, published in 1843, advocated the application of Fourier's ideas to reconstruct both family and work:
July Ordinances (1830)
Charles issued a set of edicts (____________________________) that imposed rigid censorship on the press, dissolved the legislative assembly, and reduced the electorate in preparation for new elections.
Charles's actions produced an immediate rebellion—the ______________________ of 1830. Liberal newspapers defied Charles's censorship and published articles that fueled the revolt. Barricades went up in Paris as a provisional government led by a group of moderate, propertied liberals was hastily formed and appealed to Louis-Philippe, the duke of Orléans, a cousin of Charles X, to become the constitutional king of France. Charles X fled to Britain; a new monarchy had been born.
_____________________________ (r. 1830-1848) was soon called the bourgeois monarch (of France)because political support for his rule came from the upper middle class.
upper middle class
Constitutional changes (Under the July Monarchy of Louis Philippe 1830-1848) that favored the interests of the _______________________________________ were instituted. Financial qualifications for voting were reduced yet remained sufficiently high that the number of voters increased only from 100,000 to barely 200,000, guaranteeing that only the wealthiest people would vote.
lower middle class and the working class
To the upper middle class, the bourgeois monarchy represented the stopping place for political progress. To the _______________________ and the ________________________________, who had helped overthrow Charles X in 1830, it was a severe disappointment because they had been completely excluded from political power.
The French Party of Movement, in the 1830's, led by _____________________________________, favored ministerial responsibility, the pursuit of an active foreign policy, and limited expansion of the franchise.
The Party of Resistance, led by ______________________________________, believed that France had finally reached the "perfect form" of government and needed no further institutional changes.
Supporters of liberalism played a primary role in the July Revolution in France, but __________________ was the crucial force in three other revolutionary outbursts in 1830.
Belgium, Poland and Italy
Aside from France, which three countries had revolutionary activity in 1830?
The merger of Catholic Belgium into the Protestant Dutch Republic never sat well with______________________, however, and in 1830, they rose up against the Dutch and succeeded in convincing the major European powers to accept their independence.
_________________________, too, had a nationalist uprising in 1830 when revolutionaries tried to end Russian control of their country.
The Whigs, though also members of the landed classes, realized that concessions to reform were superior to __________________; the demands of the wealthy industrial middle class could no longer be ignored.
Reform Act of 1832
It disenfranchised fifty-six rotten boroughs and enfranchised forty-two new towns and cities and reapportioned others. This gave the new industrial urban communities some voice in government. A property qualification (of £10 annual rent) for voting was retained, however, so the number of voters increased only from 478,000 to 814,000, a figure that still meant that only one in every thirty people was represented in Parliament. Thus, the ___________________________________ primarily benefited the upper middle class; the lower middle class, artisans, and industrial workers still had no vote.
deprive (someone) of the right to vote.
assign or distribute (something) again or in a different way.
As a result of the Reform Act 1832 a significant step had been taken. The industrial middle class had been joined to the _______________________ in ruling Britain.
aristocratic landowning class
The ______________________________________ was usually (but not always) the driving force for legislation that halted some of the worst abuses in the industrial system by instituting government regulation of working conditions in the factories and mines.
The industrialists and manufacturers now in Parliament opposed such legislation and were usually (but not always) the driving forces behind legislation that favored the principles of ____________________________________.
The Poor Law of 1834
___________________________________ was based on the theory that giving aid to the poor and unemployed only encouraged laziness and increased the number of paupers
Those unable to support themselves were crowded together in ______________________ where living and working conditions were intentionally miserable so that people would be encouraged to find gainful employment.
Anti-Corn Law League in 1838
Richard Cobden and John Bright, who formed the ________________________________________ to help workers by lowering bread prices
industrial middle classes
But abolishing the Corn Laws would also aid the ___________________________________, who, as economic liberals, favored the principles of free trade.
Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850)
Repeal of the Corn Laws came in 1846 when ________________________________________, the leader of the Tories, persuaded some of his associates to support free trade principles and abandon the Corn Laws.
In the first half of the 1800's the British behaved like what type of tree?
In the first half of the 1800's the French behaved like what type of tree?
A severe industrial and agricultural ______________________ beginning in 1846 brought great hardship to the French lower middle class, workers, and peasants. One-third of the workers in Paris were unemployed by the end of 1847.
Scandals, graft, and corruption were rife, and the government's persistent refusal to extend the _____________________ angered the disenfranchised members of the middle class.
Radical republicans and socialists, joined by the upper middle class under the leadership of Adolphe Thiers, agitated for the dismissal of Guizot. Since they were forbidden by law to stage political rallies, they used the political ______________________ to call for reforms.
usually from the lower middle class and working class, demanded universal suffrage and greater democracy.
a grand culminating banquet was planned for Paris on February 22. When the government forbade it, people came anyway; students and workers threw up barricades in Paris. Although _______________________ now proposed reform, he was unable to form another ministry and abdicated on February 24 and fled to Britain.
Following Louis Philippe's abdication in
february 1848, a _____________________________was established by a group of moderate and radical republicans; the latter even included the socialist Louis Blanc. The provisional government ordered that a constituent assembly be convened to draw up a new constitution; the members of the assembly were to be elected by universal manhood suffrage.
The Provisional government that immediately followed the abdication of Louis Philippe was politically very ________________________.
The provisional government also established national workshops under the influence of ___________________.
As Blanc envisioned them, the ______________________ were to be cooperative factories run by the workers
In fact, the workshops primarily provided _________________________________.
Republicans. Radical Republicans
The result of the ineffectiveness of the Provisilonal governments National Workshops was a growing split between the moderate __________________________, who had the support of most of France, and the _____________________________________, whose main support came from the Parisian working class.
Which group had more supporters in France, the moderate republicans or the radical republicans?
The moderate republicans 500, monarchists 300, radicals 100.
in the elections (of 1848, after Louis Philippe abdicated) for the National Assembly, which group won the most seats; moderate republicans, monarchists, or the radicals.
Was the government created by the election in 1848 to the political left or right of the Provisional government.
From March to June, the number of unemployed enrolled in the national workshops rose from 10,000 to almost _____________, emptying the treasury and frightening the moderates, who responded by closing the workshops on June 23.
The newly elected government closed the workshops, thus cutting 120,000 workers of from their source of income.
Why did the workers pour into the streets after June 23, 1848?
the "June Days" of 1848
What was the following referred to as? Four days of bitter and bloody fighting by government forces crushed the working-class revolt. Thousands were killed, and four thousand prisoners were deported to the French colony of Algeria in North Africa
The workers against the more moderate government forces of the newly elected government in France, 1848.
Who fought in the bloody June Days of 1848?
republic, the second French Republic. The government of Robespierre and the convention/directory was the First Republic.
The new constitution, ratified on November 4, 1848, established a _________________________with a unicameral (one-house) legislature of 750 elected by universal male suffrage for three years and a president, also elected by universal male suffrage, for four years.
Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
In the elections for the presidency held in December 1848, __________________________________, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, resoundingly defeated four republicans who had been associated with the early months of the Second Republic.
Typical Political Revolution (TPR) (1848)
What did Mr. Liem call a revolution where the middle class joins with the working class to go against the Aristocratic class, initially the workers and middle class have success but then the revolution fails because the middle class and the workers cannot keep their coalition together and the Aristocratic order re-establishes its power.
TPR + Frankfurt Assembly
How does Mr. Liem refer to the revolution in Germany in 1848?
TPR + Hungary
How does Mr. Liem refer to the Austrian Revolution of 1848?
When the workers revolted in Prussia (Berlin) in 1848, did the Prussian King Frederick William IV initially give in to the workers demands?
abolish censorship, establish a new constitution, and work for a united Germany
What did the workers demand of Frederick William IV immediately after their Revolution 1n Berlin in 1848?
What Romantic writers emphasized
emotion, sentiment, and inner feelings in their works
The Sorrows of the Young Werther
a novel by the great German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (yoh-HAHN VULF-gahnk fun GUR-tuh) (1749-1832)
Another important characteristic of Romanticism was
The Romantics' desire to follow their inner drives led them to _______ against middle-class conventions. Long hair, beards, and outrageous clothes served to reinforce the individualism that young Romantics were trying to express.
The _________________________________ was a solitary genius who was ready to defy the world and sacrifice his life for a great cause.
Many Romantics possessed a passionate interest in the _____________________.
bizarre and unusual
To the history-mindedness of the Romantics could be added an attraction to the _____________________________.
a form of literature used by Romantics to emphasize the bizarre and unusual, especially evident in horror stories.
To the Romantics, ________________________ranked above all other literary forms because they believed it was the direct expression of one's soul.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)
He wrote Prometheus Unbound
a portrait of the revolt of human beings against the laws and customs that oppress them.
He participated in the movement for Greek independence and died in Greece fighting the Ottomans.
Romantic poetry gave full expression to one of the most important characteristics of Romanticism: love of _____________________________.
The love of nature was especially evident in the works of
mechanistic materialism of eighteenth-century science
The worship of nature also led Wordsworth and other Romantic poets to critique the_________________________________________ , which, they believed, had reduced nature to a cold object of study.
The monster created by Frankenstein in ________________________________Gothic novel was a cautionary tale of the danger of science when it tries to conquer nature.
Two fundamental Characteristics of Romantic Art
All artistic expression to them was a reflection of the artist's inner feelings; a painting should mirror the artist's vision of the world and be the instrument of his own imagination. Moreover, Romantic artists deliberately rejected the principles of Classicism. Beauty was not a timeless thing; its expression depended on one's culture and one's age. The Romantics abandoned classical restraint for warmth, emotion, and movement.
Caspar David Friederich
His portrayal of mountains shrouded in mist, gnarled trees bathed in moonlight, and the stark ruins of monasteries surrounded by withered trees all conveyed a feeling of mystery and mysticism.
The Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog
A best known Romantic Work of Caspar David Friederich
Joseph M. W. Turner
Another artist who dwelt on nature and made landscape his major subject was the Englishman
Many of his works addressed the encroachment of ____________________________ upon nature.
light and color
Turner did not idealize nature or reproduce it with realistic accuracy, however. He sought instead to convey its moods by using a skilled interplay of ____________________________to suggest natural effects.
Rain, steam and speed
Turner's painting displayed in the textbook
Eugène Delacroix (oo-ZHEN duh-lah-KRWAH) (1798-1863)
He was the most famous French Romantic artist. Largely self-taught, he was fascinated by the exotic and had a passion for color.
the Massacre at Chios
Two of Delacroix's most famous works were:
Liberty leading the people
Painted by Delacroix, celebrating the French Revolution of 1830.
The raft of the Medussa
Painting by Gericault showing survivors of a ship wreck.
The Third of May, 1808
Painted by Francisco Goya, depicting an event from the Peninsular War
The White Horse
The painting by John Constable
To many Romantics, ________________________ was the most Romantic of the arts because it enabled the artist to probe deeply into human emotions
He is one of the few composers to singlehandedly transform the art of music. Set ablaze by the events in France, a revolutionary mood burned brightly across Europe, and he, like other creative personalities, yearned to communicate his cherished beliefs. He said, "I must write, for what weighs on my heart, I must express." For him, music had to reflect his deepest inner feelings.
fear, of terror, of horror, of pain, and arouses that longing for the eternal
"Beethoven's music opens the flood gates of ________________________________________________________ which is the essence of Romanticism. He is thus a pure Romantic composer
________________________________was one of the founders of program music, which was an attempt to use the moods and sound effects of instrumental music to depict the actions and emotions inherent in a story, an event, or even a personal experience. This development of program music was evident in his most famous piece, the first complete program symphony, known as the Symphonie Fantastique. In this work, he used music to evoke the passionate emotions of a tortured love affair, including a fifth movement in which he musically creates an opium-induced nightmare of a witches' gathering.
The Romantics' attraction to the Middle Ages and their emphasis on emotion led them to their own widespread revival of ____________________________.
Central to the political philosophy of liberalism is:
simpleton or fool.
Caricatures of Louis-Philippe often portrayed him with a pear-shaped head, both because there was a resemblance and because the French word for pear—poire (PWAHr)—had the slang meaning of
The Party of Movement,
led by Adolphe Thiers (a-DAWLF TYAYR), favored ministerial responsibility, the pursuit of an active foreign policy, and limited expansion of the franchise.
The Party of Resistance
led by François Guizot (frahnh-SWAH gee-ZOH), believed that France had finally reached the "perfect form" of government and needed no further institutional changes.
This form of art was a reaction to the neoclassical style of the French Revolution era (Jacques Louis David).
Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)
The Romantic hero was a solitary genius who was ready to defy the world and sacrifice his life for a great cause. In the hands of the British writer _____________________, however, the Romantic hero did not destroy himself in ineffective protests against society but transformed society instead. In his historical works, he stressed that historical events were largely determined by the deeds of such heroes.
"airy visions, painted with tinted steam."
John Constable, a contemporary English Romantic painter, described Turner's paintings as ______________________________.
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