Unit 6- Development
Terms in this set (34)
Agricultural Labor Force
the number of people who work in agriculture. This is important because a large value indicates that the country is likely an LDC dependent on agriculture, while a small value indicates that there are fewer people working in agriculture, meaning that the agriculture is more efficient.
a percentage of daily requirement is an important index of development. People in MDCs generally consume more than 130% of their daily requirements, but most people in LDCs barely get enough to sustain themselves. The problem is worst in Africa, where most people do not eat enough.
Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries.
a model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.
Dependency theory: states that LDCs tend to have a higher dependency ratio, the ratio of the number of people under 15 or over 64 to the number in the labor force.
the improvement in material conditions of a place as a result of diffusion of technology and knowledge. This is important because it is a main goal for most of the planet's regions and development will help solve many problems.
is an index of development. MDCs tend to consume much more energy per capita than do LDCs. This will be important in the future because as LDCs begin to industrialize, there will be a great strain on the world's energy supply.
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker-owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
foreign direct investment
investment in the economies of LDCs by transnational corporations based in MDCs. However, all countries are not recipients of this investment. Brazil, China and Mexico were the LDCs that received most of the investment.
gender inequality index (GII)
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
is the total value of goods and services produced in a year in a given country. The value varies greatly between MDCs and LDCs and is one of the best indicators of development. Fast growth of GDP is a major goal of all countries.
Gross National Product (GNP)
is the total value of goods and services produced in a year in a given country but also includes income that people earn abroad.
Human Development Index (HDI)
an aggregate index of development, which takes into account economic, social and demographic factors, using GDP, literacy and education, and life expectancy.
Levels of Development
that countries are classified into include MDCs (more developed countries) and LDCs (less developed countries).
the percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
measures of development
used to distinguish LDCs from MDCs. They include GDP, literacy rate, life expectancy, caloric intake, etc.
Millenium Development Goals
Eight international development goals that all members of the United Nations have agreed to achieve by 2015.
refers to the economic control that MDCs are sometimes believed to have over LDCs. Through organizations such as the IMF, the MDCs are able to dictate precisely what LDCs economic policies are, or are able to use their economic subsidies to put LDCs industries out of business.
Physical Quality of Life Index
index is another development index. It is based on literacy rate, infant mortality rate, and life expectancy at age one.
The portion of the economy concern with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing and forestry.
The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
Rostow, W. W.
developed the "Stages of Growth" model of economic development.
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
"Stages of Growth" model
linear theory of development that developed countries go through a common pattern of structural change (1-Traditional Society, 2-Transitional Stage, 3-Take Off, 4-Drive to Maturity, 5-High Mass Consumption) Important because it explains the development experience of Western countries and is a general model for many others.
Structural adjustment program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations.
the idea that people living today should be able to meet their needs without prohibiting the ability of future generations to do the same
The difference in technologies used and/or developed in two companies, countries, ethnic groups, etc., where one is more advanced than the other.- Important because it helps to explain the differences between MDCs and LDCs.
process by which existing knowledge, facilities, or capabilities developed under federal research and development funding are utilized to fulfill public and private needs- Important because it allows for knowledge to be utilized for various needs instead of being confined to a certain sector.
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended tot he provision of all goods and services to people, in exchange for payment.
countries in the developing world independent of their political status (developing countries)- Important because it is a classification to explain differences between the countries of the world.
A company that conducts research , operates factories and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
world systems theory
refers to perspective that seeks to explain the dynamics of the "capitalist world economy" as a "total social system"- Important because explains the power hierarchy in which powerful and wealthy "core" societies dominate and exploit weak and poor peripheral societies
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