HUM 233 Exam 3

Luther was a student at ____
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 138
Terms in this set (138)
The Ninety-Five theses deal withthe nature of true repentance and questions the authority of the popeRome's Reaction to the Theses1) Luther is charged with heresy and threatened with excommunication 2) Luther counter-attacks with his pen 3) Leo X issues the Exerge Domine, the order of excommunicationThe Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire after the Theses1) Luther writes the Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation 2) Duke Frederick protects Luther and resists Roman authority 3) Frederick convinces Charles V to have Luther judged in Germany (at Worms)While preparing for his trial at Worms, Luther writes1) On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church: attacks the medieval sacramental system 2) Luther burns the papal bull (the order of excommunication) in a bonfireThe Diet of Worms1) 1521 2) Luther is judged by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) 3) The German princes are unable to reach a verdict, and Luther is releasedWhat does Luther argue at the Diet of Wormsthat he acknowledges only Scripture understood by clear reason, "Here I stand."Why did Luther go to Wartburg in exile?Frederick has Luther snatched and hidden away at the Wartburg castle.Return to Wittenberg and Exile to Wittenberg?1) translation of the New Testament from Greek into German 2) the Reformation gains momentumPeasant revolt consisted of1) peasants were interpreting Luther's talk of freedom in political terms 2) Luther abhors rebellion and sides with the nobles 3) publishes Against the Murdering Plundering Hoards of Peasantspeasants were interpreting Luther's talk of freedom inpolitical termsWho does Luther side with during the peasant revoltabhors the rebellion, sides with the nobleswho published "Against the Murdering Plundering Hoards of Peasants"?Luther during the Peasant revolt.Peasant revolt crushed by the ____nobilityLuther married ____ during ____Katarina Von Bora, during the peasant revolt.Reformation spreads across Europe and to America1) changes western civilization 2) Luther's significance and impactLuther's death was inEisleben in 1546Chronology of Luther's life1) Luther the student (Univ of Erfurt) 2) Luther the monk (Erfurt) 3) Luther the pastor and professor (Wittenberg) 4) Luther the Reformer - Indulgence Controversy (1517) - Condemnation (Exerge Domine) - Trial at Worms (1521) - Luther at the Wartburg Castle 5) Luther the Lutheran (Return to Wittenberg) - Peasant revolt, marriage to Katarina von Bora - Augsburg Confession (1530)______ crushes the peasant revoltthe nobilityAfter the Cluny reforms, which churches were against each other?Late Medieval Church v. High Medieval Church - 4th Lateran Council 1215 ADTypes of corrupt popesAvignon popes and Renaissance popesBefore Luther, there was1) Church corruption and worldliness 2) Institutionalized spirituality - relics - indulgences - pilgrimages 3) Famine of the Word of God 4) Political Conflict and German nationalism - Germans wanted to control German churches 5) Renaissance Humanism and rejection of Medieval theology and philosophy - Questioning of Medieval ChristianityWho were Pre-reformation voices of reform?1) Church Council Movement 2) Wycliffe in Oxford, England (140 yrs before Luther) 3) Huss in Prague, Bohemia (70 yrs before Luther)_____ translated the New Testament into English and was critical of institutionalized spiritualityWycliffe_____ was similar to Wycliffe and preached from the BibleHussRenaissance Popes1) Pope John XXIII (Avignon Pope) - former pirate 2) Pope Alexander VI - Borgias and had 6 children illegitimately 3) Pope Julius II 4) Pope Leo X - Exerge Domine - Reacts against LutherInstitutionalized Religion consisted of1) Simony and "making merchandise of the Word of God" 2) Famine of the Word of God 3) De-emphasis of personal faith and over-emphasis on sacraments and intercession of priests 4) Good works (pilgrimage, relics, indulgences)Removal of temporal punishment for sins and purification (merit) are ________indulgencesHow indulgences work1) If you commit a sin, its forgiven because of the work of God in christ 2) Go to a priest and confess your sins 3) You're still forgiven, but there is still a punishment that you have to payWhy did some begin to sell indulgences?To limit one's time in purgatory"Treasury of the Merit of the Saints" is associated with ___indulgences (an infinite reservoir of good works of Jesus, Mary, and other saints in the church's possession that could be dispensed at the pope's discretion.)Cardinal Cajetan based argument for indulgences from ______Clement VI's decree Unigenitus (14th century)_______ Arranged for John Tetzel to sell indulgences under Pope Leo XAlbert of Mainz (Archbishop)Which pope was involved in indulgences?Pope Leo X________ Holy Roman Emperor during Lutheran ReformationCharles VDuke Frederick1) Elector of Saxony (since German states elect their Holy Roman Emperor) 2) Supporter and protector of Luther 3) Got Charles V the order that Luther would not be turned over to Rome_______ seller of indulgencesJohn Tetzel________ went to school with LutherSplatainMain people in Lutheran Reformation1) Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) 2) Duke Frederick (Elector of Saxony) 3) Pope Leo X 4) Albert of Mainz (Archbishop) 5) John Tetzel 6) Martin Luther 7) SpalatinLuther's early writings1) Ninety-five Theses (Latin) 2) Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (German) 3) Freedom of a Christian (German) 4) Babylonian Captivity of the Church (German)Which Luther writing appeals to German Christians to reform the church?Address to the Christian Nobility of the German nationWhich Luther writing attacks on the abuse of the medieval sacramental system?On the Babylonian Captivity of the ChurchWhich Luther writing is a discourse on Christian freedom and responsibility?On the Freedom of a ChristianThree walls of the RomanistsFrom the Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation 1) Only the pope can interpret scripture 2) Only the pope can call a church council 3) The spiritual is not subject to the secularCatholic DocumentsDocuments of Lateran IV (12th Ecumenical Church Council) 1215 A.D Exerge Domine (trans. .. "Arise, O Lord"). This is the papal encyclical condemning LutherLuther's Early Reformation WritingsLatin Writings •Ninety-Five Theses German Writings •Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation-Appeal to German Christians to reform the Church •On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church- Attack on the abuse of the medieval sacramental system •On the Freedom of a Christian-Discourse on Christian freedom and responsibilityReformation Theology consisted of1) Emphasis on God's actions in salvation 2) Priesthood of all believers 3) Priority of preaching 4) Salvation by faith alone 5) Authority of Scripture aloneLuther's Later Writings1) Small Catechism 2) Large Catechism 3) Smalkald ArticleImportant Luther Documents1) Augsburg Confession (1530) -Basic Lutheran doctrinal formulation-written by Philip Melenchthon -signed by the Lutheran princes and presented to Charles V 2) Book of Concord -modern compilation of historic Lutheran documentsDifferent Reformation churches1) Lutheran 2) Calvinist - Dutch Reformed - German Reformed - Scottish Reformed (Presbyterian) - English Calvinists - French Calvinists 3) Anglican (Church of England)Reasons for the Catholic Reform1) Church corruption 2) Lack of pastoral oversight by Bishops 3) Losses to the Protestants 4) Theology in disarraThree Elements of the Catholic/ Counter-Reformation1) Council of Trent 2) Inquisition 3) JesuitsCouncil of Trent1545-1563 1) Re-affirmed traditional Catholic beliefs and practices 2) Curbed corruption and immorality of the clergy 3) Provided for oversight of pastors and bishops 4) Reformed worship 5) Challenged ProtestantismTheological Decisions of Trent1) Re-affirmed salvation by grace and works 2) Re-affirmed authority of Scripture and Tradition 3) Re-affirmed the seven Sacraments 4) Re-affirmed the authority of the Pope and the clergy 5) Expanded the Index of Forbidden BooksIgnatius of Loyola1) Spanish soldier, seriously wounded 2) Founder of the new order of priests (jesuits) 3) Spiritual ExerciseThe Inquisition was aChurch court to discover and punish heretics Purpose: to purge the church of heresyWas the inquisition effective?1) Inquisition was effective in Catholic areas only 2) It was most effective in Spain. 3) Inquisition was NOT effective in areas where the government would not cooperateLegacy of Jesuites1) Made the Counter-Reformation work 2) Education 3) Missions work in the New World 4) Political influence in Europe 5) Jesuits and the Inquisition 6) Ran the Middle Class out of SpainLegacy of Counter ReformationSpread of Protestantism in Europe is stopped because Southern Germany and eastern Europe are won back to the Catholic faith 1) Revival of obedience to the Roman church 2) Spain "cleansed" of heresy 3) Catholic missions to the New WorldThe JesuitsThe Society of JesusCalvinism is similar to Lutheranism in which points?1) Sola gratia, sola fide, sola scriptura 2) Priesthood of the believer 3) Emphasis on God's actions in salvation (similar in MOST points)Different theological emphases/methods between Lutherans and CalvinistsDifferent views of election Lutherans: God wants to save everyone (1 Tim 2:4) but He elects only certain ones (Acts 13:48) (cross?) Calvinists: God predestines certain ones for grace and certain ones for wrath. (election, covenant?) - The elect respond to the Gospel and believe because of God's election; the rest God leaves in their sins.Catholic church under Council of Trent1) CONSERVATIVE, traditional Catholic faith 2) No compromise with Protestants 3) Obedient and effective priesthood 4) Abuses cleaned up 5) Catholicism under Trent was characteristic Catholicism until Vatican councils 6) Many conservative Catholics today consider Trent to be true Catholicism, and consider Vatican councils to have compromisedJesuits CharecteristicsEducation and training Fourth vow of absolute obedienceCanons of Dort Five points1) Total depravity 2) Unconditional election 3) Limited atonement 4) Irresistible Grace 5) Perseverance of the SaintsEvangelical Objections to Calvinism1) Five Articles of the Remonstants - attack ideas of Calvinism 3) Calvinist response to the objections = Canons of Dort (TULIP doctrine)_______ becomes the stronghold of international CalvinismNetherlands (Dutch Calvinists)Total Depravity (Canons of Dort)Doctrine that we are spiritually dead unless God made you spiritually aliveIrresistible grace (Canons of Dort)Calvinism: The elect do not resist the grace of God - All of the elect will come to God Lutherans teach that you can resist the grace of GodPerseverance of the Saints (Canons of Dort)Although the elect may fall under a season of sin, all of the elect will persevere in faith and be saved.Unconditional Election (Canons of Dort)1) Lutherans say that God looks forward in time and sees who will accept him and respond to his gospel 2) Calvinism says the election has nothing to do with merit; rather, God simply chooses some and does not choose others for his own purpose and reasons unknown.The idea that Christ died only for the elect (Canons of Dort) ______limited atonementCalvinist Characteristics1) Middle Class (Bourgeoisie) 2) Anti-Aristocratic Government 3) Anti-CatholicCalvinism freed itself more than Lutheranism from the ____________.State Church ModelCalvinism was more active in engaging the ______ than Lutherans.the political realm of society______ becomes the capital of international CalvinismDutch CalvinismNorthern German Provinces were ______Lutheran (Evangelical)______ is the basic Calvinist statement of faithWestminster Confession___________ Answered the five objections to Calvinism proposed by the RemonstrantsCanons of Dort (five points of Calvinism)Calvinist Documents1) Institutes of the Christian Religion 2) Westminster Confession 3) Canons of Dort (Five Points of Calvinism)Institutes of the Christian Religion (Calvinist)1) First Reformed systematic theology 2) Written in Latin, later edition in FrenchAugsburg Confession of 1530Meeting of the Reichtag in 1530 German provincial rulers (princes) vs. Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor)Southern German Provinces were ______Roman CatholicJohn Calvin's contributions1) First systematic exposition of Reformed theology (Institutes of the Christian Religion) 2) Highly organized independent protestant church structure (effectively spread Reformation)John Calvin1) Second-generation reformer 2) French 3) Believes that Christ is spiritually present in bread and wineTwo branches of Calvinist Churches1) Reformed Churches - Germany, Netherlands 2)Presbyterian Churches - ScotlandTudor DynastyHenry VII 1485 •Henry VIII 1509 •Edward VI 1547 •Mary I 1553 •Elizabeth I 1558Church of England under Elizabeth Tudor1) Moderate Protestant church 2) Catholic liturgy 3) Reformation theology 4) The act of Supremacy (1559) 5) Book of Common Prayer (1552 ed.) 6) Mandatory for all churches 7) Penalties for disobedience 8) Thirty-nine Articles (1563)Elizabeth's Actions may have caused the following•Moderate Church of England satisfied most people •England avoided religious wars of the next centuryRuler of England during Spanish ArmadaElizabeth Tudor IRuler of Spain during Spanish ArmadaPhillip ll HapsburgPhillip ll early success-Inherited a wealthy powerful empire from his father Charles V -Extended Spanish Empire -Annexed Portugal and her empire -Occupied the NetherlandsPhillip ll failures•Calvinist revolt in the Netherlands -England helped the resistance •Spanish "shipping" from the New World interdicted by English Sea Dog Pirates •Defeat of the Armada by Protestant EnglandCatholic Spain vs. Protestant England•Spain under Phillip II •Spanish occupation of the Netherlands •Elizabeth's support of English "pirates" •Elizabeth's support of Calvinists in the NetherlandsMary Stuart of Scotland-Daughter of James V (King of Scotland) and Mary Guise (French Catholic) -Great Granddaughter of Henry VII (England) -Raised in France-Married to Francis II (king of France) -Returned to Scotland after death of FrancisScotland Religious Beliefs1) Converted to Calvinism by John Knox 2) Calvinist country (celebrating the Mass was a capital offense in Scotland) 3) Elizabeth "tolerated" John Knox because of his opposition to Mary Stuart, but disliked him for his publication of: First Blast Against the Terrible Regiment of WomenWar with spain main events1) Mary Stuart flees Scotland, lands in England 2) Mary Stuart is implicated in plot to kill Elizabeth 3) Mary Stuart executed by order of her cousin 4) Phillip II mobilizes the ArmadaSpanish Armada (Invasion fleet) Spain•Spain-Larger ships, larger guns, larger numbersSpanish Armada (Invasion fleet) England1) Outnumbered, smaller ships, smaller guns 2) Faster, more maneuverable ships, accurate long 3) range guns 4) Assistance from Dutch navy 5) English Commanders 6) Lord Howard 7) Sir Frances Drake (English "Sea Dog pirate")Battle in the English Channel1) English Royal Navy assisted by Dutch Navy vs. Spanish Armada 2) Catholic Spain vs. Protestant England -Religious and political reasons 3) Elizabeth's speech before the conflict 4) English were uncertain about the outcome - English navy begins to prevail: - Technological advantages, favorable wind conditions, good leadership 5) Spanish navy disengages from the battle, and begins return voyage to Spain via the North Sea (storm sinks many ships) - Some referred to this storm as the "Protestant Wind"Children of Henry VII1) Arthur (married Catherine of Aragon) 2) Margaret (Stuarts of Scotland) 3) Henry (married Catherine of Aragon)Henry VIII1) Defender of the Faith 2) Competent monarch 3) Henry and Catherine had a daughter (Mary), but no male heirs 4) Danger of dynastic warHenry's solution to no male heirs with Catherine of Aragon1) Get another wife (Anne Boylen) 2) Appeal to the pope 3) Pope's reaction - Problem with Charles I (Charles V) 4) Attempts to secure annulment 5) Henry starts his own church (Church of England) and get his divorce from Catherine to marry Anne BoleynHenry VIII's wives1) Catherine of Aragon - Mary Tudor 2) Anne Boleyn - Elizabeth Tudor 3) Jayne Seymour - Edward Tudor 4) Anne of Cleves 5) Catherine Howard 6) Katherine ParrTudor dynasty and heirs1) Henry VII (House of Lancaster) 2) Henry VIII (Henry VII ) 3) Edward VI Henry VIII + Jane Seymour 4) Mary I Henry VIII + Catherine of Aragon 5) Elizabeth I Henry VIII + Anne BoylenHenry VIII breaks from _______ to establish the Church of EnglandRomeWhen does the Church of England become a reformation church?(mid 16th century) During the Seymour Regency under Edward VIThe attempt to destroy Protestantism was under _______Mary IUnder ________ Reformation theology in the Church of England was established.Elizabeth I (late 16th century)England after 15881) Elizabeth successfully defends her Protestant island kingdom 2) England is safe from invasion 3) Golden age of English Renaissance literatureEnd of Tudor dynasty1) Elizabeth was the last Tudor monarch 2) Raised her cousin's son, James Stuart, as a Protestant 3) James Stuart was the King of Scotland; when Elizabeth died, he became also the King of England (James I, founding the Stuart Dynasty).Accomplishments of Henry VII (Unification of England)1) Pursued a policy of peace 2) Favored the middle class 3) Dynastic marriage 4) Broke the power of the Feudal Nobles - Court of the Star Chamber - Distributed property to middle class 5) Worked with ParliamentWho is the House of Lancaster and who is the House of York?House of Lancaster = Henry Tudor House of York = Richard IIRise of the Tudor Dynasty in England (1485 AD)1) War of the Roses (late 15th Century) 2) War of Dynastic succession 3) House of Lancaster vs. House of York 4) Henry Tudor (House of Lancaster) defeats Richard II (House of York) at Bosworth Field on August 22, 1485.Who wins at Bosworth Field on August 22, 1485?Henry Tudor (House of Lancaster) defeats Richard II (House of York)The Tudor Dynasty1) Rulers of England During the 1500s 2) Beginning of the Church of EnglandPolitical Developments during the English Reformation1) Decline of Feudalism 2) Rise of National Monarchies - England, France, SpainTudor Monarchs1) Henry VII 2) Henry VIII 3) Edward VI 4) Mary I 5) Elizabeth IChurch of England under Elizabeth I1) Moderate Protestant Church - Historic (catholic) liturgy - Reformation theology 2) Elizabeth mandated compliance - Book of Common Prayer (liturgy) - Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith (doctrine)Elizabeth reigns until the beginning of the ________17th centuryWhat did the Inquisition do with the guilty?1) The guilty were turned over to governmental authority for punishment. 2) Only secular authority administered corporal punishmentChristianity arrived in England _______1) Early- by the 2nd century 2) Celtics accept Christianity in the second century because of roman missionaries 3) England had its own type of Christianity until it joins the Latin/ Romans. 4) Celtic christianity in england, ireland, and scotland was vibrant and evangelisticEnglish Christianity became part of ________ during the _______Western Roman Christianity, Early Middle AgesWhen did Reformation ideas spread to England and Scotland?After the Reformation began in the continent of EuropeAccomplishments of Henry VII1) Unification of England 2) Pursued a policy of peace by keeping England out of wars (they were expensive) 3) Favored the middle class 4) Dynastic marriage (Elizabeth of York) 5) Broke the power of the feudal nobles 6) Worked with ParliamentHow did Henry VII break the power of the feudal nobles?Seized their property and land in order to limit their power and kept some and distributed some to the middle class.Henry VIII was named ______ by the Pope for doing _____?Defender of the Faith for arguing against Luther in a published work.Why wouldn't the Pope issue the annulment between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon?Because Catherine of Aragon was Charles I (Charles V) Hapsburg's favorite aunt. He was the most powerful man in Europe (Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain) and did not want the annulment.It is during the ______, which England moves theologically away from Rome and towards Reformation theologySeymour regency