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SOC 300 Final
Terms in this set (350)
Actions that an individual must perform in order to be considered moral are called
A police officer's discretionary powers include the power to
deprive people of their liberty
The Josephson Institute identifies all of the following as ethical principles governing public servants except
Which philosopher's writings were largely in the form of dialogues, with Socrates as the main character in many of them?
Prosecutors have discretionary powers to
decide whether to pursue charges
Which of the following is not a recognized branch of ethics?
An "imperfect duty" can best be described as a
general duty that one should uphold, but without specific applications
One of the most important elements of critical thinking is to separate _____ from concepts.
In terms of ethics, critical thinking is least likely to involve identifying
an alternative path to avoid a difficult decision
Who have the power to define behavior as illegal and, therefore, punishable?
Braswell (1996/2002: 8) proposed five goals of ethics. What is one of these?
Which aspect of work is least likely to be an ethical concern for police officers?
working too much overtime
Philosophers widely believe that only humans can be moral (or immoral) because of our capacity to
An act that goes above and beyond one's duty is known as
Which characteristic is least applicable to the ethical issues that criminal justice professionals face?
the issues are avoidable
Normative ethics focuses on what people
ought to do
Questions that concern the government's social control mechanisms and the impact of those mechanisms on the governed are called
What is an important characteristic of facts that distinguishes them from moral judgments?
facts are capable of scientific proof
Which element is not a requirement for determining if an act can be judged as moral/ethical?
the act must be intentional
The typical individual ______ ethical issues
does not have control over
_____ imply a choice or judgment and indicate the relative importance that one assigns to personal beliefs.
Aristotle did not believe that bad behavior
comes from ignorance
Elements of desirability, worth, and importance can best be defined as
A ______ arises when an individual is forced to choose between two or more behaviors.
personal ethical dilemma
Meta-ethics investigates whether an ethical system
is relative or universal
Relativists believe that _____ determines what is right
The principle of forfeiture is what kind of system?
Which ethical system is concerned solely with the inherent nature of acts being judged?
According to the concept of ethical formalism, the key factor in determining whether an act is moral is
the actor's motive or intent
Which characteristic is not part of Braswell and Gold's peacemaking process?
According to Immanuel Kant, a person can control his or her
The claim "virtue is always the median between two extremes" is known as
the Golden Mean
Which system is deontological, and judges acts but not consequences?
Of the following, who is best known as an egoist?
Which system determines what is moral based on what is good for an individual's survival and personal happiness?
Ethical formalism emphasizes that individuals must not
be used as a means to an end
Which idea claims that there is an inherent universal set of rights and wrongs in the world?
Which doctrine claims that a person's actions should maximize happiness for the greatest number of people?
Barry (1985) stated that people can know God's will through
individual conscience, religious authorities, and the holy scriptures
Which philosopher believed that moral worth comes from doing one's duty?
Which principle is not part of Krogstand and Robertson's principles of ethical decision making?
"Restorative justice" is most consistent with
ethics of care
Aristotle's Catalog of Virtues includes all of the following characteristics except
Which concept holds that individuals forfeit their rights and well-being to the extent they take it away from others?
principle of forfeiture
Which system acknowledges universal truths but also recognizes that different experiences call for different responses?
Which element is not a key characteristic of an ethical system?
it's based on facts
Which ethical system emphasizes human relationships and needs?
ethics of care
An ethical system based on religious beliefs of good and evil or what is God's will can be defined as
Who was a major proponent of utilitarianism?
Harris defines ethical systems as a
systematic ordering of moral principles
Which theory places needs above entitlement?
Restorative justice emphasizes _____ instead of retribution.
Who stated that the four civic virtues are justice, wisdom, temperance, and courage?
Allocating society's resources is known as
Utilitarians who suggested the idea of proportionality in punishment include
Beccaria and Bentham
Voluntary, public, and nonviolent protest done with the aim of bringing about a change in the law is known as
The process known as "circle sentencing" comes from which culture?
Justice is cherished because it mediates between people's generosity and
Boss (2001) describes laws that are degrading to humans as
Lex talionis describes which understanding of justice?
The Milgram experiments show how easily a person can command blind obedience to
Which conception of justice is concerned with balancing unfair advantage?
Careful inquiry and investigation before any punishment or forfeiture is called
Which theory promotes freedom from government interference in social and economic spheres?
The concept of just deserts, or how one determines a fair punishment for a particular offense, is known as
Which concept is not related to equal treatment?
Which item would not be considered the rightful possession of goods?
Which theory claims that people will develop fair principles of distribution only if they are ignorant of their position in society?
veil of ignorance
Rawls' Theory of Justice is criticized because it would
ignore desert in the distribution of goods
Who claimed that "an unjust law is no law at all"?
The word justice originated from which culture?
Victim-offender mediation is an example of
Distributive justice is least concerned with
Which theory starts with the premise of equality for all?
Jeremy Bentham's term "hedonistic calculus" focuses on
weighing the benefits of a crime against the potential punishment
Which theory holds that people's behavior is influenced by their cognitive and emotional stage of maturity?
Development theories focus on _____ maturation.
physical, cognitive, and emotional
Which characteristic is least associated with frontal-lobe damage?
loss of memory
Which theory argues that moral development is based on reinforcing behaviors and beliefs?
If the reward structure and informal culture of an organization supports unethical behavior, then
ethical training is a waste of time and effort
Those who bring organizational ethical problems out in the open are known as
According to Bandura, self-efficacy is defined as an individual's
feelings of competence
A survey of police chiefs found that ethics training modules tend to
last for four hours or less
Gardner argues that ethics are necessary to
be an excellent person
The frontal lobes of the brain are least associated with feelings of
Trautman's "Corruption Continuum" explains how
organizations can become corrupt
Carol Gilligan, one of Kohlberg's students, found that women, as opposed to men, approach morality from a(n) _____ perspective.
According to Gardner, what are some of the cognitive abilities are needed to achieve excellence through ethical practices?
a disciplined mind, a synthesizing mind, and a creating mind
Which researcher claims that women and men use different orientations to make moral decisions?
According to Schafer, which factor emerged as the strongest in terms of effective leadership?
honest and integrity
Which theory claims that humans are born with no moral instincts?
Kohlberg's primary research emphasized that moral development
takes place in stages
Which researcher suggested that there are six stages of moral growth?
Souryal advises leaders who would like to advance ethical decision making to include
allow for the free flow of unclassified information
Which perspective focuses on notions of equality, rights, and universality?
The concept of the noble savage claims that humans are naturally
Which factor is least associated with the biology of moral development?
Which concept suggests that values and moral beliefs come from those whom one admires and aspires to identify with?
Influencing one's behavior by responding with rewards is known as
Sherman listed the elements necessary for ethics courses that relate specifically to
Which philosopher is associated with the concept of the social contract?
Which term refers to the right to use physical coercion to overcome the will of the individual?
Persuasion is least likely to include ____ to induce compliance
According to Reuss-Ianni, which precept is not part of the informal police code towards management?
treat your bosses as mentors and ask them for advice
Which crime control approach instructs police to take an aggressive stance against minor criminals?
The use unethical behavior to achieve a justifiable end is known as
When police are viewed as crime control agents, then people tend to presume that
police are an army that fights criminals
The "blue curtain of secrecy" refers to
absolute loyalty to other officers even if it means not coming forward to expose a wrongdoer
The use of signs, symbols, words, and arguments to induce compliance is known as
Which factor(s) are most associated with the extreme nature of the police subculture?
participating in a closed social system
"Testilying" is one example of
Which statement reflects the effects of the zero-tolerance policy implemented in New York in the 1990s?
crime rates dropped but the number of complaints against police increased
The IACP code of ethics includes which theme?
Loyalty to a superior is based on the idea of
Law enforcement professionals are least likely to use discretion when determining how
how much bail to set
The due process model operates, in part, on the principle that
errors are possible
The crime control model was developed by which criminologist?
Policing that focuses on sophisticated data gathering and geographic analysis is called
Creating partnerships with the public in addition to enforcing the law is known as
Klockars uses which term to describe the unquestionable entitlement to be obeyed?
The Thurman v. City of Torrington case personified police discretion when
a police officer watched as a woman was beaten, stomped, and stabbed by her ex-husband on the front steps of her mother's house
Police officers have become more reluctant to lie for a fellow officer because of
the risk of civil litigation
Duty can be defined as the responsibilities attached to
According to Sykes, a "profession" is least likely to include
a college education
Which term refers to the responsibilities attached to a specific role?
The media typically becomes interested in police use of force when
the victim cannot be fit into the stereotype of "dangerous criminal"
Which statement about the use of force is true?
a small percentage of officers are responsible for a disproportionately large number of "use of force" incidents
Which ethical system would be most accepting of entrapment?
Discovering the perpetrator after a crime has occurred is known as
a reactive investigation
Police who initiate an investigation rather than respond to a crime are engaging in
To get the job done, tolerated lies are considered
CEDs seem to be associated with a
decrease in the number of deaths of suspects
In most police shootings, juries will most likely
Which ethical system evaluates undercover operations by considering whether the benefit of the operation outweighs the harm being done by the deception?
Which psychological trait is least associated with police officers who are prone to the excessive use of force?
openness to learning
Research suggests that force incidents are
disproportionately the result of a small percentage of officers
Which term refers to using deception to control a person or make the job easier in a situation where force could be used?
Which demographic expresses more distrust of the police than the others?
Klockers identified a type of lie that is actually in the best interest of the person being lied to as
Which theory would not support operations that treat individuals as a "means"?
The officers involved in failing to help one of Jeffrey Dahmer's victims were:
suspended, but then reinstated with back pay
Conductive energy devices are more commonly known as
Committing an illegal act because of police encouragement is known as
Which state passed a law requiring police officers to ask for proof of citizenship if they had reasonable suspicion that a person was an illegal immigrant?
Officers who play the role of drug dealers, prostitutes, and crime bosses in order to collect evidence of a crime are engaging in
Deviant lies are those used in the field to
cover up wrong doing by officers
Opponents of racial profiling point to which case to show that profiling is not guaranteed to identify terrorists?
Individuals who are not police officers, but assist police by providing information about criminal activity, are called
Black police officers are just as likely as white police officers to stop black motorists in disproportionate numbers. According to research, this is most likely sure to
Stopping a driver for a minor violation when the real purpose is to investigate suspected criminal activity is known as a
Operations set up to test whether a police officer commits a corrupt act are called
It is difficult to "weed out" bad candidates for officer positions because
there is no consensus on what makes a good police officer
Which type of police abuse is least likely to occur (Barker and Carter, 1994)?
The idea that an officer alone is responsible for deviant behavior is called
the rotten-apple argument
It is difficult to analyze the success of civilian review boards because
high level of complaints may mean there is greater trust in the process
officers in the United States rate which one of the following as the second most serious form of corruption?
Which statement is the least used argument for the acceptance of gratuities?
police officers are pressured to accept "freebies"
Which organization is best known for charting corruption worldwide?
Sapp's (1994) inventory of sexual misconduct includes
citizen-initiated sexual contact
Which mechanism is not one of Carter's (1999: 321) recommendations to control drug corruption?
Gilmartin and Harris identify all of the following factors as leading to an officer's vulnerability to corruption except:
a perceived sense of victimization
Fyfe and Kane found that an officer's _____ correlates with the likelihood of termination for cause.
Which term describes items of value received by an individual because of his or her role or position, rather than because of a personal relationship with the giver?
officers who conduct unlawful searches or seizures are engaging in
What commission was established in 1973 to look at the findings of police corruption in New York?
Regardless of formal ethical codes, police are influenced by the standards of behavior they observe in their
Which early warning system would be least effective in identifying officers who are prone to use excessive force?
sick days used per month
Previous research on the extent of on duty drug use found that up to _____% of officers in one city used marijuana and other drugs while on duty
Courts generally uphold the right of law enforcement agencies to use what kind of test when balancing governmental interests and individual privacy rights?
Which factor has been shown to deter police misconduct?
the threat of legal sanctions
Research shows that when comparing the discipline of black and white police officers,
black officers are more likely to be disciplined
officers who participate in more deviant behavior such as a "shakedown" are engaging in
Who accounts for a disproportionate number of complaints about abuse and/or corruption?
a small percentage of police officers
Officers who take bribes, gratuities, and unsolicited protection money are often called
Which organization has documented widespread mistreatment of women by police across the world?
Which type of justice is concerned with the prevention of harm?
Which law is not in place to reinforce society's definitions of moral behavior?
texting while driving
How many of the 44 presidents of the United States were lawyers?
Which approach focuses on protecting people from their own behavior?
The primary theme of judicial ethics is
Which perspective holds that an attorney must adhere to her or his own moral code over the wishes of the client?
Which type of law is not an example of legal paternalism?
laws against theft
The Model Code of Professional Responsibility provides _____ for legal professionals.
formal ethical rules
The harm principle is the idea that all individuals should have the utmost freedom unless they
What is the least often cited justifications for law?
preventing the seizure of private property
The conflict paradigm proposes that
those who control major social institutions determine how crime is defined
The justification that the law should act as the moral agent of society is referred to as
Which theoretical approach promotes freedom from government interference in social and economic spheres?
A fundamental view of the world around us is called a
Bureaucratic justice refers to the perspective that
the goal of the system is efficient case processing
Which model of justice places the largest portion of criminal cases in the bottom layers and the few serious cases in the top layer?
Who proposed the "harm principle"?
The "legal agent" position holds that attorneys are primarily a
What type of law prohibits people from passing an accident without offering help?
Which paradigm describes a society where views are made up of competing interests and the balance of power may shift or merge depending on the dynamics of society?
Which paradigm describes a society where views are like-minded and goals for survival are agreed upon?
Positivist is a term that describes those laws
that society writes and enforces
Which theoretical approach expects individuals to give up some liberties in return for protection from others?
Which approach holds that some law is inherent in the physical world and can be discovered by reason?
Which paradigm addresses in part the law's role in reinforcing social cohesion?
More than four out of five judges are elected, which leads to ethical issues because judges:
raise campaign contributions from attorneys who later may be practicing before them
Which field provides expert testimony because it is subject to peer review?
There is concern that crime labs lack certification and standards with regard to what type of evidence?
Judges do not encourage defendants to represent themselves in court because
such cases are frequently overturned on appeal
Which case concluded that it was not a violation of the defendant's Sixth Amendment right to counsel for an attorney not to help a defendant commit perjury?
Nix vs. Whiteside
Which rule explains why evidence is not allowed in court because of the unlawful actions of government agents?
Which type of sentencing requires that a judge impose a sentence that falls within a stated range?
Which term describes a scenario where a judge disqualifies himself or herself from a case?
Which form of ethics would condemn the attorney-client privilege because of the use of deception?
A study by the Cardozo Law School's Immigration Justice Clinic found that _____ of cases in deportation hearing received inadequate legal assistance.
Brady v. Maryland is an important case because it required the prosecution to
share exculpatory evidence with the defense
A panel of people selected by the defense to mimic the actual jury is called a
Once a lawyer takes a case, he or she is not allowed to withdraw unless the
lawyer is discharged by the client
A defendant who represents himself or herself is engaging in
pro se defense
Jury consultants do all of the following except:
meet with jurors during deliberations
One example of a federal prosecution that has been criticized for having weak justifications is the case involving
Attorneys cannot be compelled to disclose confidential information regarding a client because of
The Daubert standard requires that
evidence must be from a reliable scientific methodology
Who decided that basic fairness and the spirit of justice should trump definitive rules?
The U.S. Supreme Court
What percentage of judges are elected?
A lawyer must reveal confidences of a client when
disclosure is required by law
The attorney-client privilege means that
authorities cannot compel attorneys to disclose confidential information regarding a client
The prosecutor's primary duty is to
The scenario where a guilty plea is exchanged for a recommendation by the prosecutor to the court for reduced sentence or charge is called
The prosecution is entitled to share _____ with the defense.
How many prosecutors were cited for more than one instance of misconduct in a California study conducted in 2011?
To enforce rules of ethics, the _____ has a standing committee on ethical responsibility to offer formal and informal opinions when charges of impropriety have been made
American Bar Association
The most common complaint about attorneys is that they
miss court dates
The Supreme Court, in _____, rejected an argument that judicial review of eyewitness testimony was necessary even given the research that showed how faulty it was.
Perry v. New Hampshire (2012)
A judge who believes the Constitution should be interpreted exactly as it is written is known as a
Prosecutors are _____ for their decision to prosecute or actions taken in preparation for or during trial
immune from Section 1983 liability
Which group consists of lawyers in many states who investigate cases where DNA evidence might prove that someone has been falsely convicted?
The Innocence Project
The case of Brady v. Maryland established the rule that prosecutors must
share exculpatory evidence with the defense
Model Rule 3.3(a) forbids an attorney from
knowingly allowing false evidence to be admitted
Which behavior is grounds for filing a civil suit against a prosecutor for actions taken in preparation for trial?
none of the above
As a result of Batson v. Kentucky, attorneys may not
use peremptory challenges to exclude jurors based on race
The ABA has amended its rules to acknowledge that prosecutors have which ethical duty?
to investigate and remedy if there is a chance an innocent person has been convicted
In order to play its role properly in the system of checks and balances, the judiciary must
remain independent of political powers
Which justice, appointed by a Republican President, was considered "liberal"?
The authority to decide constitutionality resides with the _____, and these interpretations are far from neutral, despite the myth of objective decision making
The creation of law is a _____ process.
Racial bias in wrongful convictions has been attributed, at least in part, to
systematic bias against minorities in all institutions of society
Which type of bias occurs when people ignore evidence that is contrary to what they believe?
Some argue that prosecutors and judges have higher duties than a defense attorney because
prosecutors and judges represent the general public
One of the most often cited reasons for false convictions is
ineffective assistance of counsel
Some prosecutors actively resist
post-conviction DNA testing
A defense attorney allowing a client to commit perjury because it may be necessary to prove her or his innocence is an example of
noble cause corruption
Ethical rules enforced by a state's bar association essentially have the power of _____ behind them?
Statistics from the Equal Justice Initiative indicate that
black jurors are dismissed at a blatant disproportionate rate compared to white jurors
Texas has a compensation law that
awards the wrongfully convicted $80,000 per year for wrongful imprisonment
The treatment ethic holds that all criminal acts are
symptoms of an underlying pathology
Which phrase is not typically used to describe "cruel and unusual punishment"?
corporal by nature
According to correctional terminology, anything used to induce behavioral change can be defined as
Invoking punishment to discourage an individual from committing more crime is defined as
Utilitarianism supports punishment as a means toward what end?
Which concept holds that a few outspoken and visible members do not reflect the views of the majority when it comes to the values of the correctional officer subculture?
Which group is considered one of the best private prison providers?
the GEO group
Which criminal scientist viewed criminals as rational and having free will?
Pain or unpleasantness lawfully administered in response to a transgression of law or rules is known as
Which ethical system would support the idea of retribution as long as the punishment was not intended to be a deterrent or treatment?
Three-strike laws are an example of
Which organization provides a code of formal ethics for correctional officers and other correctional personnel?
American Correctional Association
Which approach believes punishment is an end in itself and should be balanced to the harm caused?
Making offenders feel like social outcasts is known as
The correctional officer's subculture tends to prohibit
being a white hat, that is, sympathetic towards inmates
Beccaria and Bentham viewed criminals as
According to utilitarianism, punishing the criminal offender
benefits society, and this benefit outweighs the the negative effect on the individual offender
What is the term that states offenders must be held so that they commit no further crimes?
Probation and parole officers do not feel as isolated as correction officers. Why?
they have less coercive relationships with their clients
The preamble of which association's code states that jail officers should avoid questionable behavior that will be disrepute to an agency?
American Jail Association
Which factor justifies "habitual felon laws"?
the prediction that these individuals will continue to commit crimes
Which constitutional amendment states that an individual has a right against cruel and unusual punishment?
Which of the following is not a goal of corrections?
According to Leiser, what are essential elements of punishment?
the person who inflicts punishment causes harm to the person that is being punished
Punishing individuals to discourage future crime by others is known as
Until the _____, female prisoners were housed together with men in jails.
What is the term to describe officers' use of verbal humiliation, profanity, and physical abuse?
The combination of fear and familiarity between correctional officers and inmates can lead to a feeling of
What practice is especially problematic for treatment professionals?
administering anti psychotic drugs
During what era did the term "correctional officer" begin to be used?
Which case concluded that injuries do not need to be serious to show cruel and unusual punishment?
Husdson v. McMillian
In which system is it common for corrections officers to adopt a position that supports any actions that benefit the individual, regardless of its effect on the institution or inmates?
The term "prison guard" has been replaced with the term
What was the approximate number of parolees in the United States in 2013?
Which dynamic indicates a situation where an officer depends on an inmate?
Correctional officers will often complete an assignment at a jail before assuming what role?
Which situation presents the most unique challenge for officers working at jails, as compared to prisons?
What is an important distinction between probationers and parolees, and their officers?
parolees are considered more of a threat to the community
Probation officers use discretion in each of the following ways except
making decisions around early release from prison
Prison psychologists will likely face the dilemma of how and whether to handle private information shared with them by their clients at some point in their career. Which term best describes this issue?
An example of an extra-legal punishment would not include
strip searching an inmate after a visiting period
Psychologists who work in a correctional facility are expected to adhere to which formal ethical code?
both the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, and the code for the American Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychologists
The claim that to be an ethical professional one must perform the duties associated with the position is associated with what ethical system?
The idea of "due deference" as it relates to prisoners' rights refers to
when courts are more apt to defer to prison officials when responding to prisoner legal challenges
The Tarosoff rule requires psychologists to
warn a potential victim if a patient has threatened them
California's Department of Corrections has been described as having
abysmal medical care
Correctional officers suffer more often than police officers from
Of the factors listed below, which one is considered most critical in terms of probation and parole decision making?
risk to the public
The Supreme Court case Washington v. Harper determined that
administration of antipsychotic medication to unwilling inmates is not constitutional
Treatment professionals include all of the following except
The book Marie, by Peter Maas, details
a scheme in Tennessee involving selling parolees to convicts
In _____, the Supreme Court upheld warrantless searches of probationers' homes under a special needs analysis.
Griffin v. Wisconsin
Which term describes the development of restitution and community service?
Restorative justice does not involve which element?
exclusion of the offender
An investigation of the Texas prison system in 2009 found that from 2003 to 2008 _____ employees were reprimanded for possessing contraband.
Medical staff sometimes adopt the "penal harm" philosophy, which means that
the inmates don't deserve treatment
"Peacemaking corrections" focus on needs rather than retribution, which is consistent with which ethical system?
ethics of care
Where did Zimbardo's prison experiment take place?
The concept of _____ refers to the idea that the perception of legitimacy (of legal authorities) comes about when legal authorities practice fairness, participation (letting people speak), neutrality (governing by rules neutrally and consistently), treating everyone with dignity and respect, and illustrating trustworthiness (authorities are sincerely concerned with well-being)
In a news investigation in 2009, it was found that from 2003 to 2008, 263 employees of the _____ prison system were reprimanded for possessing prohibited items, and most (75%) were put on a probationary status by the Department of Corrections.
In which country is the rate of incarceration about a tenth of the rate found in the United States, possibly because that country invests much more in its social welfare programs?
With 20,000 employees and more than 100,000 inmates, which prison system is the third largest in the country?
What percentage of prison inmates reported some type of sexual victimization?
Illegitimate acts done for personal gain are described as
Restorative justice is least likely to include
Restorative justice programs are least likely to include
stigmatization of offenders
What rights do inmates have at parole board meetings?
the right to speak
Zimbardo's prison experiment was cut short because the
participants began displaying profound, negative changes in their personalities
The restorative justice movement focuses on _____ rather than retribution.
The Texas parole board has been criticized for
operating in secrecy
Which prison in California was accused of setting up gladiator-type fights among its inmates?
Corcoran State Prison
Which theory holds that officers will treat inmates the way they themselves perceive they have been treated by management?
Which factor has been positively correlated with support for misconduct in a jail study?
Which organization developed a comprehensive list of recommendations to reduce the "culture of violence"?
the Commission on Safety and Abuse in American Prisons
Which type of abuse is inflicted by individual officers intentionally, including excessive use of force, rape and sexual harassment, theft and destruction of personal property, false disciplinary charges, intentional denial of medical care, failure to protect, racial abuse and harassment, and excessive and humiliating strip searches?
The "Quantico Circuit" was a
system that gathered information about telephone and email communications
A fusion center is a(n)
a way to gather intelligence information from law enforcement agencies
What test determines if an individual would be comfortable with his or her actions being made known to the public?
a front page test
Which label describes the scenario where an officer intends to produce a positive consequence, but the outcome has a negative impact?
the principle of the double effect
Which justification gives sovereigns the right to use force to uphold the good of the community?
The purpose of the FISA Court is to
grant secret warrants
Which system holds that if an act of war is moral in nature, negative consequences do not change the act's morality?
Invoking the word "war" is often meant to
create justification for methods that might otherwise be considered unacceptable
Which action involves kidnapping a subject in order to conduct an interrogation?
The way to freedom and democracy is through the recognition of human rights, and the way to protect human rights is through a(n)
Which ethical concept is associated with the crime control approach?
The opposite of natural law is man-made law, which is otherwise known as
Some observers have noted the increased militarization of the police since 9/11, which is inconsistent with what approach?
human rights approach
President Obama promised to close what facility within the first year of his Presidency?
Rights-based law enforcement is not
Which principle allows for bad actions to be considered moral?
Which act was passed in response to 9/11?
The Patriot Act
Who has the power to order targeted killings of individuals, even American citizens, believed to have engaged in terrorist activity against the United States?
Several studies show that torture victims
are more likely to lie to stop torture
What is a major drawback of the utilitarian "crime control" system of law enforcement?
it justifies the means as a way of achieving some good end result even if the result cannot be known
Which case held that illegal immigrants could not be indefinitely detained?
Clark v. Martinez
What does the Military Commissions Act of 2009 allow?
due process elements for detainees being held in Guantanamo Bay
In broad terms, ethics is about
facing a dilemma and making a decision
Which case held that citizens could not be held without charges even if they were labeled "enemy combatants"?
Hamdi v. Rumsfield
What techniques under President Bush were considered acceptable interrogation techniques?