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Terms in this set (15)
a section of DNA that codes for a trait (by coding for a protein)
Explain the steps in DNA replication.
DNA unwinds and unzips
Complementary nucleotides bond to each template strand of DNA
Two identical copies of DNA are formed
The first step in protein synthesis. Gene on DNA to complementary mRNA strand
The second step in protein synthesis. Use mRNA strand to synthesize an amino acid chain
Complementary copy of gene on DNA. "Carry" instructions to the ribosome. Codon
transports amino acids to ribosome (anticodon is complementary to codon on mRNA)
enzyme that helps make mRNA
What determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein
Sequence of DNA nucleotides
combine with a protein to "read" mRNA and assemble amino acids brought by the tRNA
a point mutation which causes a change to the amino acid
a point mutation which does not causes a change to the amino acid
a point mutation which causes the amino acid to change to a stop codon
Know factors that can cause mutations.
exposure to environmental factors such as radiation, chemicals, UV light and viruses
Explain why/how a mutation can have a negative effect on an organism.
If there is a change in the sequence of DNA, there will be a change in the amino acid sequence which will change the shape of the protein. If a protein's shape changes it will not function properly and result in a disorder.
Identify 2 examples of genetic diseases caused by mutated versions of a gene.
Tay-sachs, sickle cell anemia, PKU and cystic fibrosis
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