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Arts and Humanities
Music History Midterm
Terms in this set (29)
Be able to define Gregorian chant and know what kind of musical texture it is.
Consists of melody set to sacred Latin texts & sung without accompaniment
Know who the major composers of the School of Notre Dame were, who invented measured
Leonin and Perotin
Why was measured rhythm hugely important for the evolution of Western music
music had clearly defined & precise time
Be able to name the five parts of the Catholic Mass Ordinary in the correct order
5. Angus Dei
Know the first composer to write a musical setting of the Mass Ordinary.
Guillaume de Merchant: 60-year old that married a 19-year-old
Be able to define a motet
polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than the mass ordinance, one of 2 main forms of Renaissance music
Know the history around the writing of the English motet
Spem in Alium
by Thomas Tallis, as discussed in class.
Composed as a "dare" by Duke of Norfolk for 30 separate voices, he did 40! The Duke was so moved he gave Thomas the chain he was wearing. (set in an octagonal room)
Who was Carlo Gesualdo, what non-musical event is he most famous for, and why was his
music especially forward-looking?
He was insane and murdered his wife and her lover.
He used 2 different keys in his music, laid them over each other
Be able to identify which of our three kinds of musical texture predominated in Renaissance
Polyphony flowers (ex. Spem in Alium by Thomas Tallis with 40 separate voices)
What is an oratorio
Large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists and orchestra, usually set to biblical stories, but not grand production (no acting scenery or costume)
Which famous oratorio piece of music written by Georg Frideric Handel in
1741 met this definition? Why was it not initially successful with the public?
Messiah, people didn't like that biblical words were being sung in a public setting
What is ritornello form, and what form of piece in the Baroque period was the first to
incorporate ritornello form?
Alternation between tutti & solo section, ABACAB
Concerto Grosso form- 3 movements consisting of 2 parts: when an orchestra plays ritornello or theme, and soloists (3-5 players) play parts in between
Which section of the orchestra (strings, woodwinds, brass, or percussion) dominated the
What is basso continuo, and which specific instruments are involved in playing the basso
continuo part in Baroque music?
an accompanying part that includes a bass line and harmonies,
typically played on a harpsichord and with other instruments such as cello or bass viol.
Be able to define what a fugue is, and be familiar with the terminology (subject, answer,
countersubject, episode) involved in describing fugues.
polyphonic composition based on one main theme, which is called subject
J.S. Bach wrote his famous Chaconne in D minor for solo violin in 1720. Be able to define the circumstances which led to its writing, and the "hidden" or implied musical elements of the Chaconne which we discussed in class.
His wife passed away from illness while he was away from home,
It harmonizes with Lutheran Hymns (ex. Christ lag in Todesbarden- Chirst lays in deaths bonds)
What is the difference between a passacaglia and a chaconne?
Passacaglia- polyphonic composition based on one theme that contains GROUND BASS that doesn't change, but may change key
Chaconne- Very similar, but ground bass SHIFTS
What was the name of the group that came up with the idea of opera, and what was the primary aim of opera in their eyes (hint: to rekindle the spirit of what ancient event)?
The Florentine Camerata
- many aristocrats commissioned operas depicting themselves as Greek/Roman gods
What was a favorite pastime of the young King Louis XIV of France? Who was the most prominent composer of music for the ballet de cour in France during the 17th century?
He loved to dance (was Jupiter in ballet)
What is the difference between a sonata da chiesa and a sonata da camera?
Chiesa- church sonata, slow-fast-slow-fast
Camera- chamber sonata, court music
Vivaldi's Four Seasons are an example of _____ music (hint: program or absolute) since they are wedded to written poems that describe what goes on musically within the piece?
program music— music with a narrative element
What is a cantata, and how is it different from opera? Who was the most prolific composer of cantatas in the Baroque period?
def: in the church service, sacred, no costumes choir soloists with an ensemble
operas are- concert hall, secular, costumes
J.S. Bach wrote one secular (non-sacred) cantata during his lifetime. Know the name of this cantata (in English is OK).
A first movement of a Classical period symphony or string quartet is typically in _______ form. Define what this form means, and know which three (or sometimes four) main sections make up a movement written in this form.
Sonata (not like baroque) Allegro- Fast
Fast Mvt. (Rondo)
W.A. Mozart was the best example of a child prodigy in music history. He is famous for copying a Baroque choral piece from the Vatican as a 14-year-old after only hearing it performed twice. Name this piece and the composer.
Miserere by Gregorio Allegri
Know that W.A. Mozart was an early example of a ____________ composer after breaking away from Archbishop Colloredo's court in Salzburg.
Describe what makes chamber music distinct from orchestral music in the Classical period. What are the differences in how each is performed and with what configurations of instruments?
the music was intended for performance in an intimate space, like a room (or chamber) as opposed to a concert hall seating thousands
- Unlike orchestral music, like symphonies, chamber music involves one instrumentalist on each part
- no conductor
W.A. Mozart achieved success with opera writing in Vienna in the early and mid-1780s. Which opera of his was not popular with Viennese audiences and why?
Don Giovanni- serial womanizer who is eventually dragged down to hell
W.A. Mozart's Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute) contains many allusions to what Enlightenment-era organization, which both Mozart and his father were members of? What kind of piece is Die Zauberflöte? (Hint: it is not really an opera)
Freemasonry- a fraternity which emphasized Enlightenment ideals
a singspiel, a musical work that alternated singing elements with spoken drama
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