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Unification, Imperialism, & Mass Society
Terms in this set (20)
Conflict between Boer (Afrikaaner) settlers and British colonial troops between 1880-1902. The first time the world sees the creation of a "concentration camp" it saw the almost total destruction of Boers in South Africa through brutal, inhumane treatment killing 240,000 individuals.
The European conquest of Africa and Asia led many to believe that Europeans had a G-d given right, and the superiority of thought, to rule the world.
With the development of the steamship and the railroad, European armies were able to move their supplies the battlefields quickly and for long periods of time.
Prior to the 1880s, attempts to colonize Africa were prohibited due to lack of advancements in medicine to prevent diseases like malaria, dengue fever, and the sleeping sickness.
19th-century art movements
After the failed revolutions of 1848, art movements such as Realism moved to display realities of daily life with truth and accuracy.
With the economic boom of the Second Industrial Revolution, those in the middle (bourgeoisie) and upper classes believed that machines would allow for more free time to do leisure activities.
The stated goals of New Imperialism were for economic gain (new markers/resources); military might and control of land; political superiority amongst the European nations; a Social Darwinian ideal that White must civilize the world.
White Man's Burden
Poem written by Rudyard Kipling, it details the "burden" that Europeans (and Americans) have in bringing civilization to "heathen" Africans and Asians.
Whether direct colonial or indirect colonial rule, the building of these new "nations" was seen as the duty of White men to show those of a "lesser" status how to behave. In reality, the building of the nation was often brutal, and rarely done by European people
Led by King Victor Emmanuel II, Italian unification happened in waves. With the support of Napoleon III, he was able to secure the unification of the peninsula with the handing over of Rome by Pope Pius XI.
A British leader in the colonisation of Africa, Rhodes is credited with connecting the possesions of the British Empire through railroads, introduction of the telegraph, and steamship routes from Africa, India, and the United Kingdom.
The Berlin Conference was meant to prevent conflicts as European nations competed for colonies on the African continent. While it prevented open warfare, proxy wars were fought routinely between the British and the French, such as the First Moroccan Crisis
Balance of power (unification)
With the unification of Germany and Italy, the balance of power established at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
Balance of power (imperialism)
As European nations competed for overseas territories in Africa and Asia, the balance of power between the "great empires" was perilously balanced on "fair trade" amongst their colonial holdings.
Berlin Conference 1884-1885
Otto von Bismarck initiated this meeting to prevent open conflict amongst European nations by creating a "civilised" way to carve up the African continent. Many believed though that this was a meeting to cause conflict so Germany could gain more colonies.
The political theory of Otto von Bismarck, it is the belief that the use of war, as well as manipulation of political parties, the press, and the people to maintain power.
Otto von Bismarck
Credited with creating the modern nation-state of Germany, Bismarck successfully united the German states into the German Empire as a conservative bulwark against liberal forces of socialism, communism, and spreading democracy after 1848.
the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals. Social Darwinism was used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform.
The advocacy of women's rights on the basis of the equality of the sexes.
New technologies were being developed for the use in military combat such as Gatlin fun, dynamite, and the beginnings of research into the use of chemical weapons.
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