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Bio 203 Exam 2
Terms in this set (14)
How do lysosomes and autophagy contribute to macromolecular digestion?
They undergo autophagy where lysosome fuses with food vacuoles, digest molecules, and use enzymes to recycle the cell's own organelles and macromolecules
What role do mitochondria and chloroplasts play in cellular metabolism?
Mitochondria is where ATP is generated during cellular respiration
Chloroplasts is where energy is generated through photosynthesis (for plants)
How do microfilaments contribute to muscle cell function?
Contain 1000's of actin filaments arranged parallel to one another
Have thicker filaments composed of myosin that interdigitate with the thinner actin fibers to make muscle cells contract
What is the function of the extracellular matrix?
1. Made of glycoproteins(collagen, proteoglycans, and fibronectin), functions is support, adhesion, movement and regulation
Identify and describe the function of intercellular junctions in plants and animals.
1. Tight: membranes of neighboring cells pressed together/prevents leakage of extracellular fluid
2. Desmosomes: anchoring junctions/ fastens cells together into strong sheets
3. Gap: communication junctions/ provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells
Identify and describe the function of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
1. Microtubules: cell motility/chromosome movement/ organelle movement
2. Microfilaments: maintaining cell shape/muscle contraction/ organelle movement/ cell division
3. Intermediate Filaments: maintain cell shape/anchoring nucleus/nuclear lamina
Mechanics: microtubes control beating of cilia and flagella, differ in their beating patterns but share a common ultrastructure
Describe the mechanics of motion induced by cilia and flagella.
Cilia - move in a back and forth motion, pushing the cell like a row boat, using recovery strokes and power strokes)
Flagella - moves by undulating (like a snake slithering)
Describe the outcomes of catabolic pathways.
Release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds
The breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen
Describe the outcomes of anabolic pathways.
Consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones
The synthesis of protein from amino acids is an example of anabolism
Describe the various forms of energy.
The energy associated with motion
HEAT (thermal energy)
Kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules
Energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
Potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
Describe the first law of thermodynamics.
The energy of the universe is constant
Energy can be transported and transformed
But it cannot be created nor destroyed
Also called the principle of conservation of energy
Describe the second law of thermodynamics.
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe
Why do biologists want to know which chemical reactions occur spontaneously and which require an input of energy?
Helps biologists understand how the system is organized and it helps them understand how systems can be harnessed to do work.
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