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Theory of Evolution Test 3/8/18
Terms in this set (64)
Organisms with more advantageous traits for their environment survive and reproduce more often (This causes traits in the population to change over time)
Overproduction of offspring
Organisms produce more offspring than needed to sustain the population.
struggle for existence
Hunger, disease, and predators all make it difficult for organisms to survive.
The best adapted to their environment are likely to have many offspring that survive.
A trait that helps a population survive (Polar bear's white fur helps them hide from prey in the snow).
A group organisms of the same species living in a particular area at the same time
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
Any difference between individuals of the same species.
Organisms born with the best adaptations survive and pass on their traits to offspring. Organisms without these adaptations die and do not reproduce. Over time, the population changes as more organisms inherit the adaptation.
Human interventions in helping to produce desired traits in domesticated animals
The process in which DNA changes result in new alleles
An organism that has been scientifically modified to produce an organism better suited for human use.
When the last of a species dies
A species that is most suited to survive in a certain type of environment.
Central idea behind biological evolution
All life on Earth shares a common ancestor
An example of artificial selection
Breeding of all dogs today.
examples of Adaptions
Fish gills, bird wings, thick fur on arctic animals are all......
what ship did Darwin take?
When members of a species compete, what do they compete for?
FOOD, SPACE, AND OTHER RESOURCES
What happens when species overproduce offspring?
BECAUSE RESOURCES ARE LIMITED, MANY INDIVIDUALS OF A SPECIES THAT
OVERPRODUCE OFFSPRING DO NOT SURVIVE
How do helpful variations accumulate in a species over time?
helpful variations accumulate through natural selection, as the organisms that are better adapted to their environment reproduce offspring with the same variations
Why can only traits controlled by genes be acted upon by natural selection?
because only genes are passed from parent to offspring
how can isolation of a group result in a new species?
if a group is isolated from the rest of the species long enough to evolve different traits, a new species can evolve.
how does the environment "select" organisms?
the environment "selects" organisms that are better adapted to their environment and thus have a better chance to survive and reproduce
explain how the shape of a finches beak is an example of adaptation.
the shape of the finches beak helps the finch survive and reproduce
adapted to eating algae underwater
had 15 various beak designs
-"On the Origin of Species"
-took 20 years to write/publish
process through which species change over time
selecting organisms that have certain desired traits and then allowing only those organisms to reproduce
members of a species that are best suited to their environment survive and replace at a higher rate than other members of species
creating more offspring the environment can support
natural differences in traits
individual organisms w/ a particular adaption are most likely to survive long enough to produce
A group of similar organisms that cant mate with each other and produce fertile offspring
The preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
the gradual change in a species over time
A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to reproduce than other members of the same species
any difference between individuals of the same species
catastrophism- events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by different mechanisms than those operating today
geologic forces that shaped the earth. layers of rock form slowly. some rocks are moved by forces underneath the earths surface
uniformitarianism- mechanisms of change are uniform over time
"Theory of Acquired Characteristics"
published a book on population growth
his ideas challenged that of the church and the ideas of previous scientists
why was Darwin hesitant to publish his theories about evolution?
he received a letter from Alfred Wallace who said that he had come up with the same ideas about evolution
what changed darwins mind about publishing?
On the Origin of Species
What was the name of Darwin's book?
in what year did Darwin publish his book?
collected flora and fauna and fossils and recorded and analyzed his data
what did Darwin do on his voyage on the HMS Beagle?
descent with modification
all living organisms are related to one another and have changed over time
all living things are derived from a common ancestor
survival of the fittest
individuals with characteristics well suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully , passing these favorable traits on to future offspring
age of an object in relation to the ages of other objects
actual age of the fossil given in years
fossil record, biogeography, embryology, homology, and biological molecules
5 areas that provide evidence for evolution
individuals do not evolve, a population does
natural selection can amplify or diminish inheritable traits
environmental factors may vary from place to place over time.
important points about natural selection
study of embryos and their development
seem to be "left over" from a previous ancestor and seem to serve no purpose in the living organism
similar in structure, but differ in function
the study of the location of organisms around the world
different organisms lived at different times
todays organisms are different than those from the past
what is learned from fossils?
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