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US History Unit 2
An Emerging New Nation
Terms in this set (88)
General of the continental army and 1st president of the United States of America
2nd president/1st vice president, he was considered an enlightenment political theorist and supported a strong central government
3rd president, drafted the declaration of Independence and was a Virginia diplomat prior to war
4th president of the US (1809-1817). He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the US Constitution and as the key champion and author of the US Bill of rights, later wrote Federalist papers with John Jay and A. Hamilton
Chief to staff to General Washington, Secretary of the Treasury, Leader of Federalist party and established national bank
Citizen Edmond Genet
french ambassador sent to U.S. to try and gain support for France against Britain and Spain
founding fathers of the U.S
first political party in U.S., started by Hamilton and John Adams was only president from this party, called for national bank, tariffs and good relations with Britain
A desire to establish a weak central government (as had been created by the Articles of Confederation) A corresponding desire for strong state governments, The support of many small farmers and small landowners, The support of debtor elements who felt that strong state legislature were more sympathetic to them than a strong central government.
3rd officer in Continental Army and famous for killing political rival A. Hamilton in a duel.
consisting of Democratic- Republicans and were primarily from southern and western states. Advocated going to war with Britain. Term coined by John Randolph of Virginia an opponent of war.
last president who was a Founding Father of the US. Member of the Anti-Federalist party and opposed to ratification of the constitution believing it gave to much power to the central government.
John Quincy Adams
played an important role in negotiating many international treaties, most notably the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812. Author of Monroe Doctrine. 6th president.
7th president, nicknamed "Old Hickory," was army general in Battle of Horseshoe Bend and the Battle of New Orleans.
American lawyer, politician and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives. One of the leading "War Hawks."
William Henry Harrison
was the 9th President of the US (1841), an American military officer and politician, and the 1st president to die in office. His death led to the passage of the 25th amendment.
was the fourth Chief Justice of the US (1801-1835) whose court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional low. The longest-serving Chief Justice and the fourth longest-serving justice in US Supreme Court history. Reinforced the principal of judicial review.
Shawnee leader who fought against William Henry Harrison of the Indiana territory in battle of Tippecanoe
known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution" he bought British textile technology to America
Invented the cotton gin and Interchangeable parts
American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the 1st commercially successful steamboat. In 1800, he was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to design the Nautilus, which was the first practical submarine in history.
existed from July 13th, 1787, until March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio. Previously, it was part of the British Province of Quebec, and a territory under British rule set aside in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 for use by American Indians, which was assigned to the US in the Treaty of Paris (1783)
Where both the 1st and 2nd continental congress bet to discuss the situation developing with Britain. Original capital of US.
capital of the US. The signing fo the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. As permitted by the US Congree and is therefore not part of any US State.
Battle of New Orleans
took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812. American Forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the US has acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.
Battle of Tippecanoe
was fought on November 7, 1811 between US forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and Native American warriors associated with the Shawnee leader Tecumseh
used to be apart of spain
completing a navigable water route from NYC and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. Widely regarded as reason New York passed Philadelphia as largest city and port.
Francis Cabot Lowell invented the first factory system "where people and machines were all under one roof."
Best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British Navy in Chesapeake Bay. Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner."
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
also known as the Freedom Ordinance, was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the US, passed July 13, 1787. The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory, the 1st organized territory of the US
Articles of Confederation
was an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the US of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its 1st constitution. Weak central gov.
United States Constitution
replaced the articles of confederation. Influenced by Enlightenment ideas.
Bill of Rights
1st 10 amendments to the constitution put in to increase our personal freedoms "inalienable rights"
formal announcement issued by US President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the nation neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain
between the US and Great Britain that is credited with preventing war, resolving issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783, which ended the American Revolution, and facilitating 10 years of peaceful trade between the US and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars
Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid. Established intentions of friendship between the US and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the US with the Spanish Cononies and guaranteed the US navigation rights on the Mississippi River
Alien and Sedition Acts
four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the 5th US congress in the aftermath of the French Revolution and during an undeclared war with france, later known as the Quasi-War
The Federalist Papers
series of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the US constitution
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington's speech he gave while leaving office. "The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their Constitutions of Government."
Embargo Act of 1807
general embargo enacted by the US Congress against Great Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars. The embargo was imposed in response to violations of the US neutrality.
Treaty of Ghent
peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the US and UK. The treaty restored relations between the two nations aka restored the borders of the two countries to the line before the commencement of hostilities
treaty between the US and Spain that gave florida to the US and set a boundary between US and spain (now Mexico)
Marbury vs. Madison
landmark US Supreme Court cause in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the US under article 3 of the Constitution
McCulloch v. Maryland
landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the US. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the 2nd bank of the US by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland
Gibbons v. Ogden
landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the US held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress
policy of the US introduced on December 2, 1823. It started that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring US intervention
is the act of a slave owner freeing his or her slaves
permanent union of political units for common action in relation to other units. Southern States
attempt to seize the federal Springfield Armory in late January 1787 led by Daniel Shays a veteran or revolutionary war
met in Philadelphia to address problems in governing the US, which has been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain
proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative branch. The plan was drafted by James Madison while he waited for a quorum to assemble at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 Population weighted representation. Large state plan
New Jersey Plan
called for two houses of Congress, both elected with apportionment according to population. Small state plan
the compromised plan to appease both large and small state which allowed a qual representation in the Senate and population based representation in the House of Reps.
between the southern and northern states in which 3/5ths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and apportionment of the member of the US House of Representatives
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
whether congress should be able to regulate trade and whether the US should continue with slave trading
the evolving relationship between the US state governments and the federal government of the US
Separations of Powers
setting up the 3 branches of government based on enlightenment principles
Checks and Balances
based on the separation of powers and no one section of government could gain too much power
principle that the authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people
establishes the US Constitution, federal statutes, and US Treaties as "the supreme law of the land."
most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the US
Necessary and Proper Clause, The congress shall have power
are those powers authorized by a legal document (from the Constitution) which, while not stated, seem to be implied by powers expressly stated
tax on imports or exports
is an inland tax on the sale, or production for sale, of specific goods
was a tax protest in the US. Farmers who used their leftover grain and corn in the form of whiskey as a medium of exchange were forced to pay a new tax
was a period of radical and political upheaval in France that had a fundamental impact on French history and on modern history woldwide
institution that offically elects the President and Vice President of the US. Each state has a specific number of votes depending on their size
The diplomats, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry, were approached through informal channels by agents of the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand, who demanded bribes and a loan before formal negotiations could begin
Convention of 1800
treaty between the US and France to settle the hostilities that had erupted during the Quasi- War
a legal theory that a US state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law that a state has deemed unconstitutional
is an asserted right of US states to declare federal actions unconstitutional
Revolution of 1800
The US Presidential election of 1800 where Democratic-Republican Party Jefferson defeated Federalist Adams
Duel between two prominent American politicians. Former Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton and sitting Vice President, Aaron Burr.
belief, creed, or political ideology that involved an individual identifying with his or her nation
when the US bought 828,000 square miles of Frances claim to the territory of Louisiana
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the US
was the practice of forcibly inducting men into military service
Era of Good Feelings
the years following the end of the War of 1812, reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars
prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory. Kept pro slavery and anti slavery states even in numbers
It was widely believed that Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House at the time, convinced Congress to elect Adams, who then make Clay his Secretary of State
invented by Eli Whitney to increase cotton production
a method of long-distance communication by coded electric impulses transmitted through wires
use of money for future profit
material wealth in the form of money or property
item of rented property
is the power of a court to review the constitutionality of a statute or treaty
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