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What did Franz Gall do?

in the 1800's he had the theory that bumps on the head/skull reveal mental abilities and character traits

What did we discover because of Gall theory?

Different brain regions serve different functions

Biology psychology is which area of psychology?

interacts between biology behavior

What are biological psychologist also known as? (3)

Behavioral neuroscientists, neuro psychologist, behavioral genetics


Individual nerve cell and smallest unit of nerve cell and they are very tiny; 100 billion in brain

Neurons are the ______ of _____

building blocks of nervous system

What do neurons do?

They receive, process, transmit information and transmit it to other parts of the body

Soma is also known as?

Cell body

What 3 things are in the soma?

nucleus: contains all DNA; cytoplasm: keeps cells alive; Cell membrane: keeps shape and holds together


Short bushy fibers that extend out

Dendrites are in....?

The soma

What are dendrites responsible for?

Responsible for receiving info from another neuron, listen to it, and transmit it back to the soma

Axon are the other side of the...?



single long fiber; extends out from soma


sends outgoing messages to the neurons, muscles glands

Myelin Sheath

Fatty covering and surrounds axon

Myelin Sheath

Protects axon and signals from neuron don't interfere

What does the myelin sheath do?

Speeds up neural transmission process

What is the Myelin Sheath made of?

glial cells (glia)

What do the glial cells do? What are the 3 ways?

They support and insulate neurons in 3 ways: holds neurons together, provide nutrients to the neurons, grab excess ions, neurotransmitters in brain

Terminal Buttons also known as?

Synaptic knobs

Where are the knobs?

Branched end of the axon

What are at the ends of the axon terminals?

Terminal buttons

A neuron to neuron transmission is a ____ process?


A neuron transmit with in a neuron is a ____ process?


Resting potential

Neuron more negative ions inside than outside

Polarizations is also a neuron_____?

At rest

What is inside the neurons and outside the neuron after depolarization?

positive inside and negative outside

Threshold of Excitation

In order for message to be sent the least amount of stimulation need to push it to make it feel something

All or nothing law

Message at full strength or not at all

Absolutely refractory period

Neuron will not fire again no matter how strong the next message is; still in depolarization; exhausted

Relative Refractory period

When ions switch back to polarization

When will the neuron fire again?

If only the message is stronger than the first


Gaps between neurons and function separately

What did Sherrington conclude?

that neural impulses took awhile to travel along neural pathways and concluded that somewhere along the process; message was being interrupted; Concluded we have a SYNAPSE

What are the 4 structures the synapse consist of?

Axon terminal, terminal buttons, synaptic space, and dendrites

When neurons are not directly connected they are separated by_____?

synaptic spacelceft

Re uptake

When neurons reabsorbs excess neurotransmitters

What structure takes in as many left over?

Dendrites in receptor sites

What is the end result of action potential?


What is action potential?

When neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vestivles

All neurons have to be in___ potential to start?

Resting potential

When does depolarization occur?

When positive and negative ions switch

Goes down _____ to _____ and ______ where synaptic vesicles are breaking?

axon to axon terminal to terminal buttons

_____ -->______

electrical to chemical

Where are the synaptic vesicles located?

terminal buttons

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