Neural and Hormonal Systems
What did Franz Gall do?
in the 1800's he had the theory that bumps on the head/skull reveal mental abilities and character traits
What did we discover because of Gall theory?
Different brain regions serve different functions
Biology psychology is which area of psychology?
interacts between biology behavior
What are biological psychologist also known as? (3)
Behavioral neuroscientists, neuro psychologist, behavioral genetics
Individual nerve cell and smallest unit of nerve cell and they are very tiny; 100 billion in brain
Neurons are the ______ of _____
building blocks of nervous system
What do neurons do?
They receive, process, transmit information and transmit it to other parts of the body
Soma is also known as?
What 3 things are in the soma?
nucleus: contains all DNA; cytoplasm: keeps cells alive; Cell membrane: keeps shape and holds together
Short bushy fibers that extend out
Dendrites are in....?
What are dendrites responsible for?
Responsible for receiving info from another neuron, listen to it, and transmit it back to the soma
Axon are the other side of the...?
single long fiber; extends out from soma
sends outgoing messages to the neurons, muscles glands
Fatty covering and surrounds axon
Protects axon and signals from neuron don't interfere
What does the myelin sheath do?
Speeds up neural transmission process
What is the Myelin Sheath made of?
glial cells (glia)
What do the glial cells do? What are the 3 ways?
They support and insulate neurons in 3 ways: holds neurons together, provide nutrients to the neurons, grab excess ions, neurotransmitters in brain
Terminal Buttons also known as?
Where are the knobs?
Branched end of the axon
What are at the ends of the axon terminals?
A neuron to neuron transmission is a ____ process?
A neuron transmit with in a neuron is a ____ process?
Neuron more negative ions inside than outside
Polarizations is also a neuron_____?
What is inside the neurons and outside the neuron after depolarization?
positive inside and negative outside
Threshold of Excitation
In order for message to be sent the least amount of stimulation need to push it to make it feel something
All or nothing law
Message at full strength or not at all
Absolutely refractory period
Neuron will not fire again no matter how strong the next message is; still in depolarization; exhausted
Relative Refractory period
When ions switch back to polarization
When will the neuron fire again?
If only the message is stronger than the first
Gaps between neurons and function separately
What did Sherrington conclude?
that neural impulses took awhile to travel along neural pathways and concluded that somewhere along the process; message was being interrupted; Concluded we have a SYNAPSE
What are the 4 structures the synapse consist of?
Axon terminal, terminal buttons, synaptic space, and dendrites
When neurons are not directly connected they are separated by_____?
When neurons reabsorbs excess neurotransmitters
What structure takes in as many left over?
Dendrites in receptor sites
What is the end result of action potential?
What is action potential?
When neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vestivles
All neurons have to be in___ potential to start?
When does depolarization occur?
When positive and negative ions switch
Goes down _____ to _____ and ______ where synaptic vesicles are breaking?
axon to axon terminal to terminal buttons
electrical to chemical
Where are the synaptic vesicles located?