58 terms

Chapter 1: Network Theory

Vocabulary
STUDY
PLAY
Computer Network
A collection of computers and other hardware devices that are connected together to share hardware, software, and data, as well as to communicate electronically with one another.
Device
Hardware such as computers, servers, printers, fax machines, switches, and routers.
Physical Media
Media that connects devices to a network and transmits data between the devices.
Network Adapter
Hardware that translates data between the network and a device.
Network Operating System
Software that controls network traffic and access to common network resources.
Node
A computer or other device connected to a network, which has a unique address and is capable of sending or receiving data.
Endpoints
Nodes that function as a source or destination for data transfer.
Redistribution points
nodes that transfer data, such as a network switch or a router.
Network Backbone
very-high-speed transmission path that carries the majority of network data.
Serial Backbone
a backbone that consists of multiple switches connected to each other by one cable.
Distributed/Hierarchical Backbone
a network backbone that consists of multiple switches connected serially to hubs or routers, can easily be expanded without a significant cost impact. Allows an administrator to segregate workgroups.
Collapsed Backbone
a type of backbone that uses a router or switch as the single central connection point for multiple sub-networks. The router or switch must have multiprocessors to bear the frequently high levels of network traffic.
Parallel Backbone
A type of backbone that consists of more than one connection from the central router or switch to each network segment. Suits enterprise-wide applications.
Server
A computer in a network that provides access to other computers in the network to programs, web pages, data, or other files and services, such as printer access or communications access.
Client
A computer or software that requests information from another computer or server.
Peer
a self-sufficient computer that acts as both a server and a client to other computers on a network.
Host computer
A powerful, centralized computer system that performs data storage and processing tasks on behalf of clients and other network devices.
Terminal
A specialized device on a host-based network that transmits data a user enters to a host for processing and displays the results.
Terminal emulator
Network application in which a computer runs software that makes it appear to a remote host as a directly attached terminal.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A network that connects devices within a limited area, such as a home or a small group of offices.
Wide Area Networks (WAN)
A network that spans across multiple geographic locations.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Covers an area equivalent to a city or municipality.
Campus Area Network (CAN)
Covers an area equivalent to an academic campus or business park.
Personal Area Network (PAN)
Connects two to three computers with cables and is most often seen in small or home offices.
The Internet
The single largest global WAN, linking virtually every country in the world.
Intranet
A private network that uses Internet protocols and services to share a company's information with its employees.
Extranet
A private network that grants controlled access to users outside of the network.
Enterprise Network
A network composed of interconnected multiple LANs and WANs
Network Model
A design specification for how the nodes on a network are constructed to interact and communicate.
Segment
a physical subdivision of a network that links a number of devices, or serves as a connection between two nodes.
Centralized Network
a computer network in which a central host computer controls all network communication, and performs data processing and storage on behalf of clients.
Client/Server Network
a network in which servers provide resources to clients.
Authentication
A process that determines the identity of the person requiring access.
Peer-to-peer Network
a network in which resource sharing, processing, and communications control are completely decentralized.
Mixed-mode network
a type of network that incorporates elements from more than one of the three standard network models.
topology
network specification that determines the network's overall layout, signaling, and data flow patterns.
Physical topology
describes a network's physical wiring layout or shape.
Logical topology
describes the paths through which data moves.
Point-to-point connection
a direct connection between two nodes on a network.
Multipoint connection
a type of connection between multiple nodes where each connection has more than two endpoints.
Radiated/broadcast connection
a wireless point-to-point or multipoint connection between devices.
physical bus topology
a network topology in which the nodes are arranged in a linear format, and a T-connector connects each node directly to the network cable.
Signal Bounce
a condition in which the signals endlessly move from one end of a cable to the other end
Terminators
a device used to stop signals after they have reached the end of the wire.
Physical star topology
a network topology that uses a central connectivity device, such as a switch, with individual physical connections to each node.
Physical ring topology
a network topology in which each node is connected to the two nearest nodes: the upstream and downstream neighbors. The flow of data is unidirectional to avoid collisions.
dual ring topology
allows the use of two rings with each ring carrying data in opposite directions.
physical mesh topology
a network topology in which each node is directly connected to every other node, similar to the physical point-to-point topology.
partial mesh topology
a variation of the mesh topology in which only a few nodes have direct links to other nodes.
Physical tree topology
a network topology in which a central, or root node is hierarchically connected to one or more second level nodes, which are one level lower in the hierarchy.
Hybrid topology
any topology that exhibits the characteristics of more than one standard topology.
Star-bus topology
Linking the central nodes of some star networks using a common bus.
Star of stars
Connecting the central nodes of two or more star networks with a new common node.
Star-ring
Connecting the central nodes of multiple star networks in a ring.
Logical bus topology
a network topology in which nodes receive the data transmitted all at the same time, regardless of the physical wiring layout of the network.
Logical ring topology
a network topology in which each node receives data only from its upstream neighbor and retransmits data only to its downstream neighbor, regardless of the physical layout of the network.
logical star topology
although all nodes are wired onto the same bus cable, a central device polls each node to check to see if it needs to transmit data.
Multiplexer (mux)
a device that manages separate signals in a logical star topology and enables them to share media
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