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19 terms

ch 3 neurons & neurotransmitters

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Neurons
individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, & transmit info.
Soma
cell body, contains the cell nucleus & much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
Dendrites
the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive info.
Axon
long thin fiber that transmitts signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Myelin Sheath
insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons.
Terminal Buttons
small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
Synapse
junction where info is transmitted from neuron to another
Resting Potential
a neuron is its stable negative charge when the cell is inactive
Action Potential
a very brief shift in a neurons electrical charge that travels along an axon
Absolute Refractory Period
minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential begins
Synaptic Cleft
microcopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron & the cell membrane of another neuron
Neurotransmitters
chemicals that transmit info from one neuron to another
Postsynaptic Potential
voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane
Excitatory PSP
positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
Inhibitory PSP
negative voltage shift that decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials
Reup Take
process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
Agonist
chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
Antagonist
chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter
Endorphins
internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure & effects