41 terms

IB Computer Science - Topic 3 - Networks

bus topology
Computer network in which all the devices connect together through a common cable
star topology
Computer network in which all the devices are connected through a single hub
ring topology
Computer Network in which each device is connected to two nearest neighbours
data integrity
The accuracy of data after input, transmission, storage or processing
LAN (Local Area Network)
Computer network where all the connected computers are within a limited geographical area (e.g. a home, school etc); connection between the computers may be through cables and/or microwave transmission
microwave / radio transmission
Electronic communication without the need for cables.
Computer systems that are interconnected and can share resources and data.
A subset of bits from a larger set of data.
packet switching
Network communication method and transmits small units of data, called packets, through a network, independently of the overall message
parity bit
Error-detecting procedure that appends a binary digit to a group of binary digits. The sum of all the digits, including the appended binary digit, establishes the accuracy of the data after input, transmission, storage or processing.
International rules that ensure the transfer of data between systems. Standard protocol is protocol that is recognized as the standard for a specific form of communication.
WAN (Wide area network)
Computer network where all the connected computers are in a large geographic area.
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)
Every computer on the network is connected to the same physical system but is logically separated into units that cannot share network resources.
SAN (Storage area network)
Network created so that large storage devices can be accessible from servers in a convenient and easy way
WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)
Links two or more computer systems within a limited area using radio, microwave, light, or other cable-free mediums
The Internet
A global WAN that connects millions of smaller networks together. It is the largest WAN in the world.
An resource (such as a website) within an local network that is open to external entities (e.g. a retailer might allow access to certain systems for its suppliers.)
The collection of computers and resources on a local network that are only accessible within that local network.
PAN (Personal area network)
Network that interconnects devices that are created centered around an individual person's workspace
Peer-to-peer (P2P) is a decentralized communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session. All endpoints can act equally as client and server.
A computer system or software that requests a service from a server connected to the same network.
A computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices.
Standards for wireless mobile connectivity allowing access from mobile devices to the internet.
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
Makes an encrypted "tunnel" connection through the internet or any other public network to establishing a secure connection between private, remote networks
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model
A standard for data transmission to simplify the complex requirements across software and hardware
Physical Layer (OSI)
Transmits 0s and 1s over media between devices. Definition of media specification. Voltage levels. Example protocol: RS232-C (serial port).
Data Link Layer (OSI)
Error handling of physical transmission, builds frames and amends transmission rate according the buffer of the receiver
Network Layer (OSI)
This layer is responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers, since it knows the address of neighbouring network nodes, and it also manages quality of service (QoS), and recognises and forwards local host domain messages to the transport layer.
Transport Layer (OSI)
End to end connections. Definition of data segments, assignment of numbers, data transfer, reassemblage of data at the destination. Breaks down file, assigns number to each segment, transfers data, reassembles file at destination.
Session Layer (OSI)
This layer provides the mechanism for opening, closing and managing a semi-permanent dialogue between end-user application processes.
Presentation Layer (OSI)
Provides data format information, data compression information and data encryption information to the application. Example protocol: Portable Network Graphics (PNG).
Application Layer (OSI)
Performs various services for the application used by the end users
A 4G network originally designedd as an alternative to DSL Cable and T1 lines. Intended to provide 30 to 40 mbps data rates for a great number of users.
Data Integrity
A network protocol that determines whether the data received at the destination matches the data sent by the source
Source Integrity
A network protocol that determines whether the stated source of data matches the actual source of data. (It is meant to prevent mimicking trusted sources)
Flow Control
A network protocol that allows a destination of data to request transmission rates that match its capabilities to process the data
Congestion Management
A network protocol that allows network infrastructure to restrict transmission rates to and from clients and servers when the total network load is high.
Deadlock Prevention
A network protocol that prevents compound network errors from leaving both client and server in passive states waiting from a response from each other.
Error Checking
A network protocol that ensures both sender and receiver agree on protocols for transmission
Allows only authorised network traffic
NIC (Network Interface Card)
A circuit that connects a CPU to a network.