China on the Silk Roads LAST MIDTERM EVER

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Song Dynasty dates
960-1279
Mongol Empire dates
1206-1368
Yuan dynasty dates
1279-1368
People's Republic of China dates
1949-present
Phagspa script
ordered by Kubilai Khan, National Script of the Mongolian, Chinese, Uighur, Tibetan, and other languages
Mongolian script
derives from Uyghers, only for Mongol language
Jingdezhen kiln
responsible for blue and while porcelain pieces, in South China, still in use today, most famous
Hutong
series of alleyways centered around a well in capital (Beijing), starting to be taken away in the city now, taking away from Beijing's history and culture
Orientalism
looking at Asia through lens that see Europeans as dominant, tells us more about Europeans than about Asia, geographically set aside to study specifically on, trying to understand Asia, focus on European perspective, Marco Polo image, showing how Europeans do thinks for their own personal gain
International Dunhuang Project
collection of all the works that have been collected by people from Dunhuang
One Belt One Road
idea to postion China at the center of world trade, 1 trillion dollar plan to link 60 countries, foster diplomatic ties, many roads built by Chinese population, excludes north and south america, uses other countries debt against them but taking over the territory
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)
America's attempt to build a transpacific trading block, gives too much power to corporations, a failed attempt
Cathay
alternative name for China in English used by Europeans and westerners, used by Marco Polo
Khitan
ethnic group during Liao Dynasty, had own culture that they brought in, they develop culture and become Liao, controlled military, chinese controlled administration
Jurchen
Ethnic group from Manchuria, lived in woodland areas
Chinggis Khan
born in 1162, is marginalized at young age but makes comeback and establishes elite group of bodyguards, fights to win every battle, relies on speed, surprise and mobility, uses terror, kills peasants( doesn't realize that is the money source)
Kubilai Khan
Grandson of Chinggis Khan, eventually comes to power and takes different approach to conquering and managing, transfers capital to Beijing, responsible for paper money, highly encourages international trade, pony express system of travel and communication, ended mismanagement,
Anige
nepalese architect, discovered by Kubilai Khan at 17, was given test to reconstruct statue, oversaw construction of temples
Marco Polo
an explorer with European superiority, tainted his information, his account romanticized asia for Europeans, traveled across Taklamakan
Baron von Richtofen
named the Silk Roads, trained Sven Hedin
Aurel Stein
ruthless, trained by Baron, Born in Budapest, spoke sanskrit, studied maps and adopted Xuanzang as Patron Saint, most famous explorer, expedition funded by India, takes advantage of Wang Yuanlu, British Hungarian, first one to bring documents back from the library cave at Dunhuang
Wang Yuanlu
guardian of Dunhuang caves, lied to by Stein and tricked into giving away documents from caves
Albert von Le Coq
German, studied medicine, proficient in Arabic, Turkish, Sanskrit, cuts Bezeklik cave paintings out, believed Taklamakan greeting point between Greece and India
Paul Pelliot
French, knew 13 languages, warmed government of exploitation, good at perserving
Langdon Warner
(American), went on 1923 expedition for Fogg Museum at Harvard, defaces many paintings in removing them from caves, based off of Indiana Jones
Count Otani
Japanese man who sent archaeologists, imperial Japan rising to power
President Xi Jinping
sucessor to Mao Zedong, more related to Han Wu Di, creates One Belt One Road
President Barack Obama
tried to get TTP through, spearheaded project
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
state department took the lead on the project
President Donald Trup
shut TTP down
Neo-confucianism
national religion of Song dynasty
Chan(Zen) Buddhism
super intense, enlightenment is found through yourself through meditation, comes from india, introduced tea to China
Bodhidharma(5th-6th century)
discovers Zen buddhism, falls asleep during meditation and cuts off eyelids
Kaifeng
capital of North Song
Jiangnan
region south of Yangzi River
Karakorum
capital of Mongol Empire
Beijing
capital of Yuan dynasty
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