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A bacteria with the name Stretococcus is most likely what shape in the microscope?
Lipopolysaccharide is a complex biological structure composed of ___________________.
sugar and lipid molecules
If the antibiotic moves from the outside of a Gram Negative bacterium without a halo to the inside during a medical treatment, what is the correct order of the cell wall features that it crosses?
III. Plasma membrane
If an experiment population of bacteria lacks an F factor or F plasmid, and if bacteriophages are excluded from the bacterial cultures, then genes with beneficial mutations might be transmitted to other bacterial cells via _____________
The attachment of ubiquitin chains to proteins in eukaryotic cells is important for the process of _______________.
Which species would not have Lipopolysaccharide in its cell wall and would be able to move along a glucose gradient?
Species C because they are gram positive bacteria (purple) and they have a flagellum which allows them to move
Which species will have peptidoglycan in their cell wall and could bind to other cells using a protein based structure?
Species A because it has peptidoglycan and fimbrae
Species D because it has peptidoglycan and fimbrae
What is the evidence from the Lenski Experiment that mutations are sometimes beneficial to organisms?
The experiment population evolved the ability to utilize the new carbon source more efficiently than the ancestral population
The structure of a fatty acid is shown above. What kind of fatty acid is it?
The figure shows the amount of DNA in a recipient cell (f-) changes after it comes in contact with a Hfr cell. What is happening at time point 1?
Entry of Hfr cell chromosome into the F- cell
The figure to the right shows how the amount of DNA in a recipient cell (F-) changes after it comes in contact with F+ cell. What is NOT happening at time point 1?
The F plasmid is being integrated into the F- cell chromosome
A bacterium picks up an antibiotic resistance gene through a lysogenic phage infection. This is an example of bacterial ________________.
Nucleic acids dissolve in water. Therefore, DNA and RNA are known as ___________ substances.
If a phosphate group is dissolved in water, how will the nearest water molecules be oriented around it?
The water molecules will prefer to point their hydrogen atoms towards the phosphate
Cell membranes of animals adapted to life in very cold environments would contain an abundance of which of the following?
Unsaturated fatty acids
The fluid mosaic model of the membrane proposes that membranes_____________.
consist of protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids
The polarity of a biological molecule is related to the differences in the _____________ between the atoms bonded within it.
Which of the following will only cross a cell membrane with the assistance of a carrier protein?
A ribose sugar
A cell needs to move the amino acid Alanine (ala) from the outside of the cell to the inside. The concentration of Ala is higher outside than inside. Which transport mechanism would be most probable?
Passive transport of Ala using a carrier protein
A cell is considered to be undifferentiated if ______________________.
if it is able to become many different cell types
During the recycling of ligand-bound receptors, a vesicle that buds off of the plasma membrane binds to an organelle called an _________________.
Which of the following statements is true about kinases?
they transfer a phosphate group from protein to ATP
The TK1 protein has two connected halves- the N terminus binds to TK2 and that Receptor, while the C- terminus has Kinase activity. If a stem cell has a nonsense mutation. In the TK1 genes that occurs just upstream of it kinase domain, what will be the result for self renewal?
There will be no phosphorylation of TK2 by TK1 and therefore no self renewal
If a stem cell is defective in endocytosis then it will NOT be able to shut off self renewal. This statement is most likely ?
True- the activated receptor will not be recycled
Based upon the principle of signal amplification, which of the following situations is most likely NOT observed during stem cell renewal?
TK2 only phosphorylates a single TF before it shuts down
Which of the following changes would still allow TF to enter the nucleus?
Transcription factor has a gain of function mutation that mimics phosphorylation
The ___________ life cycle of a bacteriophage is NOT characterized by integration of the phage genome into the host chromosome.
In viruses, the protein structure that protects the viral genome is known as a viral ______________.
Which region of the DNA sequence above could have a restriction enzyme cut site?
Where do the proteins in Step 3 come from?
Genes encoded in the viral genome and translated by host ribosomes
What process is occurring in Step 1?
Replication carried out by the host replication machinery.
What is the smallest structure listed below that can be seen accurately with a light microscope
Which of the following is the site of ribosome assembly in eukaryotes?
Which of the following does NOT support the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria
the inner mitochondrial membrane is folded into structures called cristae
Which of the following is found only is prokaryotic cells?
Which of the following statements about the eukaryotic nucleus is false?
a major site of protein synthesis
Which organelle below would contain digestive enzymes used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria?
A cell that has a lot of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is probably specialized for which of the following?
detoxification of chemicals
Cell movement involves extension of the cell boundary in the forward direction. Assembly of which of the following is responsible for this?
Actin filaments (muscle)
An experimental drug changes the internal organization in a tumor cell. You suspect that the drug alters which of the following?
In a plant cell, DNA is found _________.
in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts
Which of the following forms the strongest cytoskeletal filaments important for painting the shape of the cell?
Tay-sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large, complex, undigested lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition?
Thylakoid membranes are found in which of the organelles listed below?
Peptigodlycan is a complex biological structure composed of ____________.
sugar and protein molecules
If a Hfr cell connects to a F- cell through a sex plus, the end result for the F- cell will be:
The F- cell may or may not become an Hfr cell and the amount of DNA in the cell will stay the same.
Cipro (antibiotic) resistance genes are often carried on R plasmids. Which of the following would be unlikely to be true?
The R plasmid could bind to Cipro's target, the ribosome, and remove it from the cell
A transport vesicle is created by the endoplasmic reticulum. From the list below, where is the vesicle going to go next?
Cis face of the golgi apparatus
Which of the following is an important role for the central vacuole in plant cells?
Storage of water
From the name of the family of bacteria known as spirochetes, you would predict that all have a ___________ shape.
A sex pills is required for bacterial ______________.
The attachment of ubiquitin chains to proteins in eukaryotic cells is important for the process of ___________________.
During the recycling of ligand-bound receptors, the first sub cellular structure they are found is called _________.
During a signaling cascade which of the following statements is true?
one kinase can activate another kinase by binding to it and transferring a phosphate group from ATP
What does it mean to say that a signal is transduced?
the physical form of the signal changes from one to another
Which function does the receptor NOT carry out during self renewal?
The receptor shuts itself off by removing the attached phosphate group after the TF enter the nucleus
Cystic Fibrosis is a disease caused by a malfunction carrier protein. What chemical does this transporter move across the membrane?
Which of the following is most likely to cross a cell membrane without the assistance of a carrier protein?
A cell need to move Chlorine (Cl) from the outside of the cell to the inside. The concentration of Cl is higher inside than outside. Which transport mechanism would be most probable?
Active transport of Cl through a carrier protein
If an amino acid is dissolved in water, how will the nearest water molecules be oriented around the amine?
the water molecules will prefer to point their oxygen atoms towards the amine.
According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane, phospholipids _____________.
Can move laterally along the plane of the membrane
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