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Ch 12 The Brain and Cranial Nerves
Terms in this set (91)
Most common type of TBI, temporary loss of consciousness, headache, drowsiness, confusion
bruising of the brain due to trauma
Second Impact Syndrome
develop severe brain swelling, 2nd injury before 1st one heals
Gray matter is made of...
neurons cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons,
Cerebral cortex is...
the gray matter surface of cerebrum
Cerebral nuclei are...
regions of gray matter found deep in cerebellum
White matter consists of...
Brain ventricles are...
cavities within the brain, lined with ependymal cells, contain cerebrospinal fluid and connect with each other and the spinal cord's central canal
How many ventricles in the brain?
Lateral ventricles are...
large cavities in cerebrum, separated by medial partition septum pellucidum
Third ventricle is...
narrow space in middle of diancephalon, connected to each lateral ventricle by interventricular foramen
Fourth ventricle is...
sickle shaped space between pons and cerebellum, connected to third ventricle by cerebral aquequct, opens to subarachnoid space medially and laterally, narrows before merging w/ central canal of spinal cord
Cerebrum is the center for...
intelligence & reasoning,
thought, memory & judgement,
voluntary motor, visual & auditory activities
Longitudinal fissure is...
deep cleft separating hemispheres
largest tract providing connection between the hemispheres
Speech is frequently located in...
the left cerebral hemisphere
Lobes of the brain are named for the bones superficial to them and are part of the
The shallow depressions between folds on the surface of the brain are called
Clusters of gray matter that contain neuron cell bodies and lie within masses of white matter are
What is the correct order for the cranial meninges, from superficial to deep?
dura, arachnoid, pia
Which of the cranial meninges consists of dense irregular connective tissue in two layers (the
periosteal layer and the meningeal layer)?
the meningeal and periosteal layers separate to form large blood-filled spaces.
dural venous sinuses
The meninx composed of a delicate web of collagen and elastic fibers is the
The meninx composed of a thin layer of delicate areolar connective tissue that follows every
contour of the brain surface is the
The horizontally-oriented fold of dura mater that separates the occipital and temporal lobes of the
cerebrum from the cerebellum is the
The largest of the four dural septa, this large, sickle-shaped vertical fold of dura mater separates
the left and right cerebral hemispheres
A sickle-shaped vertical partition that divides the left and right cerebellar hemispheres is the
A brain ventricle located in the cerebrum is the _____ ventricle
The brain ventricle located in the diencephalon is the _____ ventricle.
The brain ventricle located between the pons and the cerebellum is the _____ ventricle.
The partition between the lateral ventricles is the
Which is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
CSF helps to promote mitosis within neuronal tissue
true or false: The brain floats within the cerebrospinal fluid.
Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by the
Excess CSF is removed from the subarachnoid space by
The type of glial cell that plays a critical role in the formation of CSF is the _________ cell.
22.List these events in the correct order for CSF flow in the CNS.
a: CSF flows into the arachnoid villi
b: CSF enters the blood
c: CSF flows through the cerebral aqueduct to the 4th ventricle
d: CSF flows into the subarachnoid space
e: CSF is produced by the choroid plexus
e, c, d, a, b
The blood-brain barrier is made up of
astrocyte perivascular feet and capillary endothelial cells
The blood-brain barrier is reduced or missing from three locations in the brain. Which is not one
of these locations?
true or false: Lipid-soluble compounds are incapable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier.
The location of conscious thought processes and the origin of all complex intellectual functions is
The major pathway of communication between the right and left hemispheres is the
Most commonly, which cerebral hemisphere is responsible for controlling speech?
true or false: Generally, the left cerebral hemisphere issues motor commands for the right side of the body.
Which of the five cerebral lobes is the one not visible on the surface of the brain?
One function of the brain's frontal lobe is
The portion of the brain involved primarily with vision is the
Cerebral lateralization refers to the
functional differences between the right and left hemispheres
The lobe that is immediately posterior to the central sulcus and that is involved in general sensory
functions is the
The lateral sulcus is superior to the
true or false: The frontal eye field is immediately anterior to the premotor cortex.
true or false: The Wernicke area is the motor speech area of the frontal lobe.
The primary gustatory cortex processes information about ________ and is located in the ______.
true or false: The gnostic area is a part of the frontal lobe that integrates the learning of skilled motor activities.
integrate new sensory inputs with memories of past experiences
A person with damage to the premotor cortex area that coordinates eye movements most likely
can understand the words but cannot follow the lines on the page
connect different regions of the cerebral cortex within the same hemisphere.
extend between the right and left cerebral hemispheres
link the cerebral cortex to the caudal brain regions and the spinal cord
The ______ hemisphere is known for its involvement in categorization, symbolization, and
Which part of the brain contains the epithalamus, hypothalamus, and the thalamus?
This portion of the brain forms part of the roof of the diencephalon and covers the third ventricle.
Its posterior portion houses the pineal gland and the habenular nuclei.
This portion of the brain secretes the hormone melatonin, which helps to regulate the body's
Which structure plays a crucial role in filtering out the irrelevant noise at a crowded party so that
you can listen to someone speaking to you?
Which structure serves as the main relay point for sensory information that is headed to a primary
sensory region of the cerebral cortex?
The brain region that exerts significant control over the endocrine system (via its connection to
the pituitary gland) is the
true or false: Functions of the hypothalamus include regulation of body temperature and water intake.
The sleep-wake cycle and the sex drive are both regulated by
Which part of the brain produces dopamine, and thereby affects motor control?
The corpora quadrigemina is part of what portion of the brain?
The superior colliculi help you respond to
true or false: The inferior colliculi are auditory reflex centers of the midbrain.
Which portion of the brain contains the posterior part of the fourth ventricle?
Most axons of the corticospinal tract cross the brainstem at the
decussation of the pyramids in the medulla oblongata
true or false: The medulla oblongata contains a cardiac center and a medullary respiratory center.
The vasomotor center is an important regulator of ________ and is located in the ________.
blood pressure, medulla oblongata
The limbic system allows
processing and experiencing of emotion
The numerous folds of the cerebellar cortex are called
Which part of the brain contains the arbor vitae?
The middle cerebral peduncles connect the cerebellum to the
The inferior cerebellar peduncles connect the cerebellum to the
This portion of the brain ensures that skeletal muscle contraction follows the correct pattern
leading to smooth, coordinated movements.
Which portion of the brain adjusts skeletal muscle activity to maintain equilibrium and posture?
The __________ is composed of multiple structures that collaboratively process and experience
During a mugging, a person experiences an extreme level of fear. What portion of the limbic
system is responsible for this and other emotional states?
What is the name of the brainstem sensory area that contains axons that project to the cerebral
cortex to arouse us from sleep?
Reticular activating system
The reticular formation is an area of the brain that
has sensory and motor components
Damage to which lobe of the brain (that normally plans appropriate behavior) has been most
frequently associated with personality abnormalities?
Cognition is generally thought to be governed by
association areas of the cerebrum
true or false: Prefrontal cortex axons generally complete myelination by the time puberty is reached.
Your memories of the sights and sounds of your elementary school are probably stored in
association cortex areas of your cerebrum
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