length of Holderness Coastline from Flamborough Head to Spurn Head
what are most of the cliffs made of?
rate of erosion at Great Cowden
the soft boulder clay cliffs are prone to slumping when it's wet. Water makes the clay heavier and acts as a lubricant between particles which makes it unstable.
direction of longshore drift
What happens where the ocean current meets the outflow of the Humber River?
Spit with a recurved end that extends across the mouth of the Humber Estuary. To the landward side of the spit, estuarine mudflats and saltmarshes have formed
Chalk headland to the north of the area.
Beaches, sand dunes and spit,
amount Holderness Coastline has retreated by in the past 2000 years.
number of villages lost to the sea
amount of good quality farmland lost each year to the sea. This has a huge effect of farmers' livelihoods
Gas terminal at Easington
Only 25m from the cliff edge, if it is lost it will be a loss of infrastructure
the Lagoons near Easington provide habitats for birds, could be lost due to erosion
Amount of the 61km coastline currently protected by hard engineering
4.7km sea wall and timber groynes
how is Bridlington protected?
Concrete sea wall
timber groynes and riprap, how is Hornsea protected?
Two rock groynes and 500m revetement
how is Mappleton protected?
cost of protection at Mappleton.
road protected in Mappleton
how is Easington Gas Terminal protected? (Defences only protect gas terminal, not the village which has a population of 700 people)
Groynes and riprap
how is the eastern side of Spurn Head protected?
Holding the line
SMP for Holderness for the next 50 years recommends this for some settlements including Bridlington, Withernsea, Hornsea, Mappleton and Easington Gas Terminal
SMP along less-populated stretches, this is unpopular with landowners of these areas
SMP suggested for areas such as caravan parks as it would be more sustainable
when did Holderness Borough Council decide to stop trying to protect Spurn Head?
Damage to marsh environments and Coastguard station
risks of not protecting Spurn Head
How sustainable are the existing schemes? (groynes trap sediment and lead to increased erosion elsewhere e.g Mappleton and is causing the formation of bays. As bays develop the wave pressure on headlands will increase and eventually the cost of maintaining sea defences may become too high)