AP World History Chapter 22 Vocab
Terms in this set (55)
A machine for spinning with more than one spindle at a time, patented by James Hargreaves in 1770.
It was able to spin 128 threads at a time, which was an easier and faster method than ever before. It was developed by Richard Arkwright, who patented the technology in 1767.
A weaver, carpenter and inventor in Lancashire, England. He was one of three inventors responsible for mechanizing spinning.
An inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution.
An American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South.
They are made to specifications that ensure that they are so nearly identical that they will fit into any assembly of the same type.
An engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to generate power. Thomas Newcomen invented it in 1712.
A Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781.
First invented in 1787 by John Fitch; a ship that is propelled by a steam engine.
The system of varying successive crops in a definite order on the same ground, especially to avoid depleting the soil and to control weeds, diseases, and pests.
It sows seeds at equal distances and proper depth, ensuring that the seeds get covered with soil and are saved from being eaten by birds.
The basic material from which a product is made.
An inland waterway capable of accommodating seagoing ships.
A natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah.
Second Industrial Revolution
Also known as the "Technological Revolution," brought new technologies such as steel, chemicals, precision machinery, electronics, and the ability to extract kerosene from petroleum.
Constructed between 1891 and 1916, making possible the settlement and industrialization of sparsely inhabited regions.
A steel-making process, now largely superseded, in which carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from molten pig iron by oxidation in a blast of air in a special tilting retort.
The process by which cities grow or by which societies become more urban.
Protestant Work Ethic
The view that a person's duty is to achieve success through hard work and thrift, such success being a sign that one is saved.
The period when Japan was ruled by the emperor Meiji Tenno, marked by the modernization and westernization of the country.
The rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery.
The development of industries in a country or region on a wide scale.
A business or manufacturing activity carried on in a person's home.
Production system widespread in 17th-century western Europe in which merchant-employers "put out" materials to rural producers who usually worked in their homes but sometimes laboured in workshops or in turn put out work to others.
The system of manufacturing that began in the 18th century with the development of the power loom and the steam engine and is based on concentration of industry into large establishments.
Division of Labor
The assignment of different parts of a manufacturing process or task to different people in order to improve efficiency.
A series of workers and machines in a factory by which a succession of identical items is progressively assembled.
A period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that occurred during the 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe.
Wealthy farmers bought land from small farmers, then benefited from economies of scale in farming huge tracts of land.
One of England's most important economic, industrial, trade, and finance centers, and the heart of the most densely populated area of England.
City in northwestern England; one of the greatest ports and largest cities in Britain, and the country's major outlet for industrial exports.
Wealth in the form of money or other assets owned by a person or organization.
The skills, knowledge, and experience possessed by an individual or population, viewed in terms of their value or cost to an organization or country.
The concept that an ever-expanding consumption of goods is advantageous to the economy.
A company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
A holder or owner of stock in corporation.
The market in which shares of publicly held companies are issued and traded either through exchanges or over-the-counter markets.
The exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.
John Stuart Mill
An English philosopher, political economist and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory and political economy.
The doctrine that actions are right if they are useful or for the benefit of a majority.
An imagined place or state of things in which everything is perfect.
A philosopher and economist famous for his ideas about capitalism and communism. He, in conjunction with Friedrich Engels, published "The Communist Manifesto" in 1848.
A German philosopher, social scientist, journalist, and businessman. He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx.
The Communist Manifesto
A political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; first statement of the principles of modern communism.
Means of Production
(especially in a political context) the facilities and resources for producing goods.
A political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
A room or a set of rooms forming a separate residence within a house or block of apartments, a piece of land held by an owner.
A squalid and overcrowded urban street or district inhabited by very poor people.
The social group consisting of people who are employed for wages, especially in manual or industrial work.
Relating to the work done or those who work in an office or other professional environment.
Captains of Industry
A business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributed positively to the country in some way.
Cult of Domesticity
A term used by some historians to describe what they consider to have been a prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes during the nineteenth century in the United States and Great Britain.
An organized association of workers, often in a trade or profession, formed to protect and further their rights and interests.
The class of wage earners, especially those who earn their living by manual labor or who are dependent for support on daily or casual employment; the working class.