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Nervous System Ch. 9 & 10
Terms in this set (121)
Which body system is responsible for communication and coordination of all body functions?
What is another term for a sensory input function?
Which general function gathers information and is found in the PNS & CNS?
Which function interprets sensory input and is found in the CNS?
Which general function activates the effector organs to produce a respons?
What is another term for Motor output?
Which subdivision of the nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord?
Central Nervous System
Which subdivision of the nervous system consists of the cranial and spinal nerves?
Peripheral Nervous System
Which cells are excitable and transmit electrical signals?
What is the space between that the signal "jumps" over and the neurons don't contact each other?
What is the membranous covering that protects the brain and spinal cord?
What is the fluid that fills the laters of the meninges; protects from physical impact?
Which cells are supporting cells that also protect, and nourish the neurons?
What's another term for neuroglia?
Name the two cells of the nervous system.
Neuroglia and Neurons
Which cells do NOT conduct nerve impulses?
Which cells are the most abundant of the two types of nerve cells?
Name the two types of glial cells.
Astrocytes and Ependymal
Which type of Glial cell is star shaped, controls the chemical environment and determines capillary permeability?
Which Glial cell lines the central cavities of the brain and spinal column and assists in formation of CSF?
Name the three parts of a neuron.
Dendrites, Cell Body, Axon
What are the tree-like structures that conduct nerve impulses TOWARD the cell body?
What is the control center for the neuron?
What part of the neuron conducts nerve impulses AWAY from the cell body?
What is the storage spot for chemical neurotransmitters (ACh)?
What is a segmented protein-lipoid sheath that protects and insulates the axon?
Which cell is in the PNS; has neurilemmas to regenerate damaged peripheral nerve fibers?
What is a cell in the CNS; has no neurrilemma which causes spinal and brain injuries to be permanent?
What is the peripheral bulge of Schwann cell cytoplasm that can regenerate?
What are the gaps between adjacent cells along the axon not covered w/ myelin; allows the electrical impulse to travel more quickly?
Nodes of Ranvier
Which tissue of the CNS gets its color from the myelinated fibers?
Which tissue of the CNS consists of cell bodies, interneurons, and unmyelinated fibers?
What is gray matter called in the PNS?
What is gray matter called in the CNS?
What is another term for action potential?
What is the "resting state" inside of the cell, is negative (potassium leaving the cell)
Inside of the cell becomes positive (sodium enters the cell) is what?
Inside of the cell becomes negative once again the "resting state" (sodium is stopped from entering and potassium leaves the cell) is what?
What is a short period where the neuron is unresponsive; unable to receive depolarizing stimuli?
Nerve impulse moves along the myelinated axon by what type of conduction?
During saltatory conduction, nerve impulses leap from one Node of Ranvier to the next so they can travel long distances very quickly. True or False?
Which part of a nerve synapse does axon terminal A not touch axon dendrite B; space between?
What are the chemicals store in vesicles; acetylcholine called?
What stops the activity in the neurotransmitters?
Name the spot where neurotransmitters attach?
1. Nerve impulse travels along neuron A to axon terminal.
2. Impulse causes vesicles to open and release neurotransmitters in the cleft.
3. Neurotransmitters defuse across the cleft and bind to receptors on nuron B's dendrite.
4. Impulse travels toward the cell body of neuron B.
Events of a Synapse
What is the most common neurotransmitter?
ACh is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase and degraded by what?
Which division of the brain is the largest; has right and left hemisphered joined by the corpus callosum?
In the cerebrum, the outer later is gray and called?
Cerebral cortex is arranged in convulutions called?
Gyri are separated by deep fissures called?
Which cerebral lobe controls motor function, behavior, emotions, memory, personality, learning?
In the left hemisphere and controls most of the speech is called?
Which lobe is the primary somatosensory area, sensory from skin, pain, temperature, touch, proprioception?
The primary auditory cortex controls what?
The olfactory area receives info from the?
The Wernicke's area comprehension of what?
The primary auditory cortex, Olfactory area, and wernicke's area make up which lobe?
The visual cortex controls what?
What is responsible for depth perception and 3-D sight?
Which lobe contains the visual cortex?
Which areas are concerned with interpreting, integrating, and analyzing info?
This is scattered throughout the cerebrum to regulate body movement and facial expressions.
Patches of Grey
Which division of the brain is located beneath the cerebrum and above the brain stem?
Which gland sorts, edits, and relays info; mediates sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning and memory?
Which gland controls body functions such as blood pressure, body temperature, or water balance and effects the autonomic nervous system?
What makes up 80% of the diencephalon and is the gateway to the cerebral cortex?
What is the center for emotional response and controls release of hormones from the pituitary gland?
Which division of the brain connects the spinal cord with the brain structures?
What is formed by the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata?
What is the "vital center" that controls heart rate, blood pressure, and respirations?
Which brain division protrudes from under the occipital lobe at the base of the skull?
What is called the "little brain"?
What coordinates muscle activity?
4. Blood brain barrier
are in place to protect?
What is the outer, strongest meninx layer of the meninges called?
What is the middle layer, "spiderlike" part of the meninges called?
What is the space between the arachnoid and pia mater called that use CSF to cushion the brain?
What is the innermost, delicate, soft layer of the meninges called?
What is the layer of the meninges that contains selective cells that prevent toxins from entering the CNS from the blood called?
Blood Brain Barrier
What protects the CNS from mechanical stress and trauma and nourishes the brain?
What is protected by the vertebrae, meninges, and CSF?
What is the four stages from light to the beginning of deep sleep called?
Non rapid eye movement
When does deeps sleep where dreaming occurs called?
Rapid eye movement
What nervous system is made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, contains visceral motor nerve fibers and regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscles, and glands?
Autonomic Nervous System
What contains sensory and motor tracts?
Which tract ascends up the spinal cord to the brain and carries sensory info like touch, pressure, pain from the spinal cord to the thalamus?
Which tract decends from the brain down to the spinal cord to the periphery?
Which nerve fibers travel to the cord through the dorsal root?
Which nerve fibers travel in the ventral root to the muscles, glands, and organs?
Which pathway does the spinal cord relay sensory info from the periphery to the brain?
Which pathway of the spinal cord travels info from the brain to the periphery?
Which center of the spinal cord acts as the reflex center?
What is an automatic or involuntary response to a stimuli that does not need to be interpreted?
Sensory receptors, afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and effector organ make up the what?
Which afferent fibers convey impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, and joints?
Which afferent fibers convey impulses from visceral organs?
Which cells are small, ovoid thorny processes that migrate toward injured neurons, phagocytize microorganisms and neronal debris?
Bundles of dendrites and axons are called what in the CNS?
Bundles of dendrites and axons are called what in the PNS?
Neurons that have 1 axon and several dendrites, are the most abundant, and are motor neurons and interneurons are?
Neurons that have 1 axon and 1 dendrite and are rare are called?
Neurons that are single, short processes with two branches are called?
Processes with more distal branch that are often associated with a sensory receptor are called?
Processes that branch entering the CNS are?
Which potentials do not move far from the site of stimulation, are seen in the dendrite and soma, and are proportional to the size of the stimulus?
Which neurons in the synapse conducts impulses toward the synapse?
Which neurons in the synapse transmits impulses away from the synapse?
Which type of synapses occur between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another?
Which type of synapses occur between the axon of one neuron and the soma of another?
Which synapses have neurons that are connected via gap junctions which allow for a free flow of ions, communicate fast, and signals move in both directions?
Which synapses have the axon of the presnyaptic neuron form the axon terminals that contain synaptic vessicles filled with neurotransmitter?
Which summation has one or more presynaptic neurons that transmit impulses in rapid-fire order?
Which summation has postsynaptic neuron that is stimulated by a large number of terminals at the same time?
The olfactory Cortex is aware of?
The Gustatory Cortex is aware of?
Which sensory area is conscious perception of visceral sensations?
The Vestibular Cortex is responsible for conscious awareness of?
Limbic Association Area provides emotional impact that helps establish what?
This activating system contains sensory axons that help maintain consciousness and is found partly in the brainstem.
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