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Science of Psychology Neuroscience and Behavior
Psychology- Schacter 2nd Edition Chapter 3 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (59)
Cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks.
cell body (soma)
The part of a neuron that coordinates information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive.
The part of a neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body.
The part of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
An insulating layer of fatty material.
Support cells found in the nervous system.
The junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another.
Neurons that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord.
Neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement.
Neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons.
The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane.
An electric signal that is conducted along a neuron's axon to a synapse.
The time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated.
Knoblike structures that branch out from an axon.
Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites.
Parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate or prevent a new electric signal.
A neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor control.
A neurotransmitter that regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal.
A major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.
A neurotransmitter that influences mood and arousal.
A neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating and aggressive behavior.
Chemical that act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain.
Drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter.
Drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter.
An interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body.
central nervous system (CNS)
The part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles.
somatic nervous system
A set of neurons that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system (voluntary movement)
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
A set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands.
sympathetic nervous system
A set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations.
parasympathetic nervous system
A set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state.
Simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions.
An area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord.
An extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration.
A brain structure that regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal.
A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
A brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain.
A part of the midbrain that orients an organism in the environment.
A part of the midbrain that is involved in movement and arousal.
The outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres.
Areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the very center of the brain.
A group of forebrain structures including the hypothalamus, the amygdala, and the hippocampus, which are involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory.
A subcortical structure that relays and filters information to the cerebral cortex.
A subcortical structure that regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior.
The "master gland" of the body's hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body.
A structure critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex.
A part of the limbic system that plays a central role in many emotional processes, particularly in the formation of emotional memories.
A set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements.
A thick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres.
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement abstract thinking, planning , memory and judgement.
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex.
The unit of hereditary transmission.
Strands of DNA wound around each other in a double-helix configuration.
A measure of the variability of behavioral traits among individuals that can be accounted for by genetic factors.
A device used to record electrical activity in the brain.
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