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46 terms

Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

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water
provides a medium for transporting nutrients to cells, act as a solvent for electrolytes and nonelectrolutes, help maintain body temperature, act as tissue lubricant, faciliates digest and promotes elimination
intracellular fluid
fluid within the cells, 70% of total body water, 40% of adult body weight
extracellular fluid
all fluid outside the cells, 30% of total body water and 20% of adult body weight
transcellular fluid
this type of fluid encompasses plasma, interstital fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial fluid, synovial fluid
hypothalamus
where the thirst mechanism is located
kidney
retain electrolytes and water and excrete wastes and exccesses according to body needs, filter blood
cardivascular system
pumps and carries nutrients and water throughout the body
lungs
regulate o2 and co2 levels of blood, crucial in maintaining acid-base balance
aldosterone
a mineralocorticoid hormone that helps body conserve sodium, helps save chloride and water, and causes potassium to be excreted
solvents
liquids that hold a substance in a solution
solutes
substances that are dissolved in a solution
isotonic
fluid that has the same pulling power as plasma
hypertonic solution
greater osmolarity (pulling power) than plasma, water will move out of cells and cause cells to shrink
hypotonic solution
less osmolarity (pulling power) than plasma it causes cell to swell and possibly burst
acid
substance that has H+ ions
base
substance that accepts h+ ions
acidosis
pH level under 7.35
alkalosis
pH level over 7.45
buffer
substance that prevents body fluids from becoming too acidic or basic
carbonic acid h2co3
the human bodys most common acid
bicarbonate hco3-
the human bodys most common base
hypovolemia
isotonic fluid loss, loss of both water and solutes from the extracellular fluid space
hypervolemia
excessive retention of water and sodium in extracelluar fluid space
edema
accumulation of fluid in interstitial space
hyponatremia
sodium deficif in ECF, leads to cell swelling, resulting in hypotension, edema, muscle cramps
hypernatremia
surplus of sodium in ECF, leads to cell shrinking, results in neurological impairment, delusion, and hallucinations, permanent brain damage can occur
normal isotonic value
0.9% NS, lactated ringers d5w
hypotonic value
0.45 NS, 2.5% dextrose, sports drinks
hypertonic value
d5 ns, 3%NS
normal sodium range
135-145 mEq/L
normal potassium range
3.5 -4.8 mEq/L
normal magnesium range
1.4-2.0 mEq/L
normal calcium range
8.5-10.5 mg/dl
normal bicarbonate range
23 - 31.9 mEq/l
normal chloride range
100 - 108 mE1/L
normal phosphate range
2.6 - 4.5mg/dl
hypokalemia
potassium deficit, skeletal muscles show it, muscle weakness, leg cramps, parethesias, dysrhytmias
hyperkalemia
excess potassium, renal failure, hypoaldoesteronism, more dangerous, nerve conduction malfunction can occur, cardiac arrest can happen
hypocalcemia
calcium deficit, numbness and tingling of fingers, mouth or feet, tetany and seizures
hypercalcemia
causes bone pain, execessive urination, slurred speech, constipation, cardiac arrest may happen, nausea, vomitting, confusion
hypomagnesemia
magnesium deficit, occurs with alcohol withdrawl, sepsis or burns, leads to heart block, change in mental status, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, respiratory paralysis,
hypermagnesemia
occurs when renal failure occurs, includes loss of deep tendon reflex, respiratory depression, coma, flushing, lethargy, nausea
hypopohosphateemia
can result from administering too many calories to patients, alcohol withdrawl, hyperventilation, insuline relase, manifestation include paresthesais, confusino, serious, coma, irritability
hyperphosphatemia
common causes is impaired kidney excretion and hypoparathyroidism. can result in anorexia, nausea, tachycardia
hypochloremia
can result from GI tube drainage, burns, diuretic therapy, manifestations include hyperactive DTRS, weakness and muscle cramps
hyperchloremia
can result from mebaolic acidosis, head trauma, increased prespiration, excess adrenocortical hormone production, signs include tachypnea, weakness, lethargy, dimished cognitive ability, hypertension, decreased cardiac output